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October “Getting Ahead” Etude 

The Part that Health Plays in Musical 

Success - - By Henry T. Finck 

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ftertsi s p w tsssa&a 

MS- M " sici “ '“ rn ”“ h "» h “ -o’ 

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October Etude he is at his best in his chosen field. 

Brain Force in Music - By Dr. E. E. Ayres 

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time to the pulpit and to the teaching of Greek 

devoted his time to the pulp 
and psychology in a large col 
things in simple words and his 
tell you how to use your mind to 

Find How Others Have Failed - 

By Clarence G. Hamilton 

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Prof HandhL of WelTesky 3 a te* h° d f “I/ 0 kn ° W What to do ” 
we may avoid failure by studying the p h i I o so pTyof Tai hi re.'' S h ° W 

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VOL. XXXI. No. 9 





Mr. W. J. Gaynor, the Mayor of New York, laid aside his 
Epictetus long enough to send the following lines to a lady who was 
pleading for a somewhat ambitious project to give more grand 
opera music free to the public: 

“I think it would be better for you to first talk with the Park 
Commissioner about the giving of free concerts of classical music, as 
my time just now is very much taken up. Also at this time the city 
has no money to spend for additional music. And then, again, 1 am 
not able to see that the city should furnish grand opera music. Only 
a few people are aide to understand it. The great Rufus Choate was 
not able to understand it with all his refinement and fine nervous 
system—as fine as a stringed instrument. When he went to the opera 
he had to say to his niece: ’My dear, please interpret to me the 
libretto, lest I dilate with the wrong emotion.’ 

“It is with music as with poetry. Nearly all of us are able to 
enjoy simple music or a simple poem. But only a few among us are 
able to enjoy listening to grand opera music or the reading of 
Milton’s Paradise Lost. Music is the expression or voice of poetry, 
light music of light poetry and heavy and intricate music of like 
poetry. When we read again Collins’s delightful Ode to the Passions 
we fully realize this. You remember how it begins: 

•* ‘When Music, heavenly maid, was young. 

While yet in early Greece she sung,’ etc. 

“Sincerely yours, 

“W. J. Gaynor, Mayor." 

Here we find the executive officer of the most cosmopolitan 
city of modern times acting as arbiter for the musical tastes of the 
people. We forgave the Kaiser for assurriing a similar role, because 
the Kaiser really does know something about music. Indeed, the 
German Emperor’s enterprise in furthering the publication of the 
V olksliederbuch fiir Mdnnerchor will last long after every battleship 
in the imperial navy has gone to its last resting place. The case of 
Mayor Gaynor, however, is that of an intelligent gentleman deciding 
a matter without sufficient investigation of the facts. 

The mayor’s letter would be just as sensible if he had decidec 
that his Italian supporters should abanden Spaghetti Milanese, or 
his German constituents forego Rindflcisch und Kartoffel Salad, 
or his Tenderloin followers forsake their Martinis and lobsters 
because some historic epicure had decided against them. Because 
Milton in his loftiest moments soared above the heads of the S> r °' * 
eling masses must we then abandon Shakespeare, Hugo, >oct ic, 
Stevenson, Dickens, Tolstoi, Holmes or Kipling and apply ourselves 
to the Family Story Weekly or Mother Goose? Must the beautilul 
thoughts that come only from master minds be debarred from the 
people? ' 

If the mayor’s letter is correctly quoted, it would imply that 
because Rufus Choate, like General Grant and some others, haa 
little liking for music, the rest of mankind should esc 1CW U5°° 
music. Should the one instance of the tone-deal Kufus 
outweigh the cases of millions of Italians who ma e opera 
national pastime? Has Mayer Gaynor forgotten that there are 
six hundred thousand Italians in New York City. oes ic re - 
that of the $6C0,030,000 spent for music in America annual 
far the greater part is devoted to musical education an "™si 
the better class? The immense profits of the sound-reproducing 
machine companies would prove instantly how peat y ic 
for the best known operatic records exceeds that o 
trash of the day. , . 

If you would know the real love of the people for 
dear Mr. Gaynor, leave your country home on Long ’ 

enough to spend a few hours in Prospect Park or en 
where your citizens swarm about the bandstands wai 1 P f 

M’agner, Beethoven. Puccini, Verdi and Grieg. r un • i lt ineale 
beloved Discourses of Epictetus and read, “If I were * of 
■ would act the part of a nightingale; were I 
swan.” One may be a very fine jurist and yet have soi 
comings as a music critic. 

Sooner or later we are all brought to realize that some of us 
have gifts so obvious that it seems futile for those less gifted to 
compete with them. Grant Allen in Common Sense Science says, 
‘‘There are people, indeed, descended from exceptionally fine stocks 
on either side, of whom it has been well said that they are almost 
born ‘organically moral;’ the impulse to act right seems in their 
inherited natures to have completely outweighed the impulse to act 
wrong; and what many of the rest of us do with a voluntary effort 
these happily constituted and beautiful characters seem to do, so to 
speak, mechanically and unconsciously.” 

Strangely enough, many of the most gifted people fail to reveal 
the results which some of their struggling contemporaries produce. 
Work, intelligently directed, will always outweigh a superficial gift 
in the long run. A story is told of John Field, the Irish pianist 
composer, which illustrates this point finely. One day Field went 
into the warerooms of Clementi, to whom he had been apprenticed 
for a sum of five hundred dollars. There he found a laborer spend¬ 
ing a few idle moments playing the piano. Field was amazed at the 
beauty of the fellow’s trills. He had worked for years and had not 
been able to play the trill as well. Yet the laborer was uncouth, 
uneducated and ambitionless. Field thereafter, it is said, put far 
fewer trills and ornaments in his compositions. 

It is exasperating to find digital cleverness in one who will 
never put it to any beautiful use. However, “gifts” of this kind 
hould not disturb the serious student who has the “gift” of working 
and thinking. 


Whoever went with Alice to Wonderland who did not wish 
that the marvelous journey would never end? How all the remark¬ 
able mammals and birds and reptiles jumped away from their mute 
species and became one of us. Could it be possible that the Lewis 
Carroll who told those tales all on summer days to a party of little 
girls was none other than the learned Charles Lutwidgc Dodgeson. 
lecturer on mathematics at Cambridge and other great schools? who 
when he was not writing Formula of Plane Trigonometry, or A 
Treatise of Determinants, disported himself with* Through the 
Looking Class or The Hunting of the Snark? The case of Dodgeson 
is that of many other men who have to deal with the technic of 
exactness and yet have ample play for their fancies. Many of the 
Russian masters have originally had the severest kind of a technical 
training in the rigorous military and engineering schools of their 
country. The delightful paintings of F. Hopkinson Smith, to say 
nothing of the adorable Col. Carter of Car tersville. are all blossoms 
that have grown from Mr. Smith’s busy life as a civil engineer. 

In recent years we hear a great deal about the fatal effect that 
technical studies have upon the real musical taste of children. If 
this effect is as murderous as wc are led to lielicvc. how can wc 
account for Beethoven, Haydn, Liszt or indeed Richard Strauss, 
who were ground through technical mills ten times as severe as 
those of to-day? Technic is the science of any art. It leads to 
efficiency and exactness. Do away with it and all art must suffer. 

In a recent interview in The Etude Mr. Leopold Godowskv 
went to great lengths to show our readers that technic was possibly 
more a matter of mind control than bodily exercise. We have long 
been of the opinion that scales that were not practiced in the brain 
as well as on the keyboard were ladders leading downward to the pits 
of monotony instead of upward to the heights of fancy. 




In the Journal of the International Music Society, 
Hugo Ricmann writes interestingly on the Basses- 
Danses of former periods, and this suggests by contrast 
the poverty of our present dance repertoire. Specimens 
of the dance-tunes are given, with indications of the 
steps taken and the opening bow to the lady. 

It is only about two centuries now since the maturity 
of Bach and Handel, and the palmy days of the dance 
suite. Yet in those two centuries, while music itself 
has developed to new schools and styles, the dance 
has grown more and more conventional. What composer 
of to-day, for example, would think of writing a suite 
on the dances of the present? At first glance; he would 
almost seem limited to an alternation of waltz and two- 
step. If he used these at all, he would have hard work 
to escape the banality of style with which they are 
invested. There would be more chance for worthy 
music and good contrasts in some of the dance-forms 
that are not now used in the ball-room, such as the 
Mazurka, Polonaise, Hailing, Springdans, or even the 
wild Kamarinskaia. But even with these a composer 
could hardly hope to maintain symphonic standards. 

In the old times the music to the dances was equal 
to the best of its period, and was marked for its interest 
and variety of style. The suite itself consisted of 
Allemande, Courante, Sarabande and Gigue as a found¬ 
ation. These movements were so well contrasted in 
style that they helped in the development of the sym^ 
phony. The Allemande was moderate in pace, the 
Courante rapid, the Sarabande slow and stately, and 
the Gigue a rollicking finale. Then there was a host 
of other dances that could be employed now and then. 
The Gavotte was fairly bright, in even rhythm, with 
a number of short and sprightly themes, The minuet, 
likewise familiar at present, was a stately movement. 
The Passacaglia was a slow, exaggerated affair, almost 
a burlesque. The Gaillard and Rigaudon were more 
lively. The Loure was a species of slow Gigue. The 
Hay and Hornpipe were rustic dances of England, the 
latter being named from the shepherds’ horn, or pipe. 
The list could be extended by the Cinque-Pas, the 
Branle (Brawl), the Passo-Mezzo (Measure), and a 
number of other dances. 

At present we indulge in very few dances, while 
formerly many were employed. This fact, of course, 
acts as a handicap to us and causes the modern com¬ 
poser to feel little inducement to write dances. If 
some new forms were introduced by the dancers (apart 
from the debatable ragtime affairs that seem in vogue 
now), composers would have more chance in this field. 
This would be especially true if some dance should be 
taken up in slow time, whether even or triple. We have 
none such at present, the waltz being really in 6-4 or 
6-8 rhythm. Meanwhile Edward German has done 
good work in keeping the old English forms alive, while 
Edward Schuett has shown that the waltz may be made 
poetic and expressive. If the average of dance music 
today were raised to the standard set by these two com¬ 
posers, the result would be a widespread improvement 
in musical taste. 

has not yet told us if he had a program in mind when 
he wrote his early F-minor symphony, a work that 
followed classical models. It certainly becomes his 
duty to let us know as soon as possible. 

Program music, while in itself a well-defined school, 
is very elastic in its varieties, and not sharply marked 
in its limits. It is a small and apparently unimportant 
step from Beethoven’s earlier scherzos to that of his 
Pastoral Symphony. The latter has its story to tell, 
while most of the earlier ones have only a musical 
significance. But when the Rubicon is once crossed, 
and definite programs allowed, then the school is ac¬ 
knowledged as legitimate, even by those who have 
attacked its later manifestations. Yet good sense 
should guide, even in the use of descriptive music; and 
that is the point that causes so much discussion today. 
Music is at its best in depicting emotions, and much 
weaker in describing events. A broad general subject, 
such as Liszt’s “Tasso, Lament and Triumph,” or 
Strauss’s “Death and Transfiguration,” leaves the 
music unhampered, and allows the composer to soar 

able in some cases. Among these were HalW 
opera. “W aldemar’s Treasure," and Hugo A /'■ 
original and lively symphony in B-flat minor c 
hammar was represented by a piano concert/' , 
choral works, of which “Das Yolk in Nifelh S 
very striking in its Northern character. Aulin'/v, 
violin concerto was given, also an earlier violin ”' r 

Amizr * !ymphony by * 

Other new orchestral works include EW, 
phonic poem “Falstaff.” to be given next anh,/^ 
Leeds. In Paris. Roussel's "Evocations” prove j .5 
most interesting novelty. It consists of three F, 
Indian pictures, “The Gods in the Shadow” “u 
Rosy City,” and “By the Sacred River.” Bela kJ • 

I In voller Blute” and “Tanz im Dorfe” areextreS 
involved in style. Percy Grainger’s folk-song 
pleased at Hague, where D’lndy’s recent string qilan , 
was called head-work without soul.” Moscow enjoyed 
A. borter s advanced symphonic poem “Le Reve, 1 ' 

Scriabine’s seventh sonata and 

some very origins! 

the loftiest heights. But when it comes to picturing pieces by Nicholas Medtner.. St. Petersburg found 

~ - .Wassilenko symphony too long, and another by U 

afati somewhat in Tchaikowsky’s style, but it approved 
heartily of Winkler’s variations on a Finnish theme, 
for violin and orchestra, and Kasanli’s fantasie on 
Boecklin picture “Das Villa am Meer.” Dannstadt en¬ 
joyed Keussler’s symphonic poem “Der Einsiedler,’ 
also chamber music by Arnold Mendelssohn, Was- 
mann, Juon. Scheinpflug, and Volbach. Karl Bleyle 
has set Goethe's “Prometheus” for chorus and 
orchestra, while Dalcroze is writing a centennial 
cantata for a Geneva occasion. 

It is apparently the close season for operas. French- 
etti, who chooses dramatic subjects and treats the® 
broadly, is composing “Notte bi Leggenda.” Alick Mor- 
var’s “Wald-Idyll” is an effective setting of a pastoral 
love-scene and renunciation. Wolf-Ferrari's “L’Amour 
Medecin” is for Dresden. Raymond Roze has finished 
"Jeanne d’Arc.” In Paris, Charpentier’s “Julien" 
shows his sure technique, but treats an unattractive 
subject—a rather silly, disappointed idealist who suc¬ 
cumbs to drink. 

Wagner’s life, as well as “Parsifal,” is now being 
maltreated by the moving pictures. Count Francesco 
Alberti has made a legitimate boast of having Wagner's 
hat, which he got from a store where Wagner left ill 
but what we really want is someone who can stand in 
Wagner’s shoes. 

the upsetting of Don Quixote’s boat, or the bleating of 
the sheep he attacked, then music can only go a certain 
distance in suggesting the picture, and such suggestion 
is decidedly not the highest function of the tonal art. 
Such suggestions are matters of cleverness rather than 
real inspiration; and their use, even in a very skilful 
way, should not be accepted as a proof of genius if the 
quality of the music itself is at all unworthy. De¬ 
scriptive music of this sort is certainly permissible, and 
even desirable, in opera; but on the concert stage it 
should not be allowed to blind the hearer to any lack 
of good material in the music itself. 


Meanwhile Arnold Schonberg has won the Gustav 
Mahler prize. He certainly would deserve it on the 
score of originality, at any rate. As for musical beauty 
in a modern composition, that seems to be somewhat 
unnecessary. Since Debussy set the fashion, any com¬ 
poser may indulge in new and unusual effects. Where 
Debussy worked with aural delicacy as a basis, modeling 
his effects on the whole-tone intervals of the higher har¬ 
monics, many of the others seem to experiment almost 
at random. Scriabine uses chords built on intervals of a 
fourth; the English radicals claim no new scale, but 
write just as unexpected and unrelated chords as anyone 
else; while Schonberg satisfies his individual taste—or 
lack of it, as some would claim. In piano pieces and 
songs, this new harmonic (or non-harmonic) style has 
certainly resulted in many interesting effects; the tone- 
pictures of Debussy and Cyril Scott show that there is 
“something in it.” Meanwhile, many of the experiment- 
ahsts seem too exclusively devoted to their special 
effects. Wagner was greeted at first as being too radical 
and ugly in his harmonies; but after growing to appre¬ 
ciate his music, the critics could see that much of it was 
diatonic. Will the present innovators prove equally ac¬ 
ceptable later on? The present writer thinks that they 
are too completely devoted to the new. But no doubt 
the next great composer will blend the new with the 

the etude 


Pupils do not realize—and very often, alas, teach¬ 
ers do not realize—how closely allied expression aw 
taste in the interpretation of piano works are alu« 
to dramatic elocution. What would be thought of 
speaker who ran all his words together in the u» 
broken rush with which some pupils gabble the"' 
old and thu/^/l/rT/u/ T‘ U lnC neW T' 1 " the music at their recital concerts? There must be as¬ 
serting the old standards entfre^. mStea ^ derstandin S and ca «ful phrasing, pedallingf and finger 

y mg before a clear idea can be conveyed to an 


The summer crop of festivals was unusually large this fZ!’ y ° U , K 

year. There were two or three lesser c— / - French pianist, but Sarah Bernhardt 

to the “big show” 


■as my 


In the Musical Times, M. Calvocoressi comes to the 
defense of program music. At present, however, it 
does not seem to need any defenders. It is flourishing 
like the green bay tree, and casting the school of pure 
music in the shade. Hanslick and Riemann are men¬ 
tioned as opposing program music, and refusing to allow 
it the highest rank; but Hanslick is dead, and Riemann 
apparently unable to alter the situation. 

It cannot be denied, however, that program music 
has apparently reached a limit for the present, in 
quality if not in quantity. Strauss has claimed that all 
music is program music, every composer having in 
mind some scene or event or subject that he pictures in 
tone when he writes, even if he does not tell the public 
what his ideas were. This, however, is carrying matters 
rather far. Most of the great composers are unfor¬ 
tunately dead—too dead, in fact, to let us know if 
Strauss has exposed their methods correctly. But it 

TprniQn • c • ' ''" addition fluential teacher of expression. Although I ■*! 

m one at St Gallen a„H L <T i ^ ,ndulged firs ‘- dass Caching in piano playing, it was 
following the wise p/eedent of imVeVsingToTeign Td playing 11 * 

audiences, located theirs in Stuttgart. At the German dramat.c expression in my 

~ ' last month 4 clearness of diction, strength of accent^ ** 

grouping of phrases and their separation^ 

Tonkunstlerfest, mentioned last month, Rudi Stephan 
seems to have won the most favorable notices, with 
his Musik fur Orchester.” Stavenhagen’s second 
piano concerto received only fair commendation but 
was highly praised at the Swiss festival Reger’s “Roman 
Triumph-Song” was rated as a rather monotonous at- 
tempt to be direct and straightforward in the old style 

. ose s string quartet and Baussnern’s sextet were con¬ 
sidered the best of the chamber music. 

• j* S i' 9 aI,< ; n ' a new s - rnl phony by Hans Huber ear¬ 
ned off the honors-an event that was expected, as 
Huber is really one of the leaders among modern com¬ 
posers. Robert Dengler’s “Totentanz” showed a mas¬ 
tery of counterpoint as well as expression. Choral 
works by Y ogler, Lavater, and Herman Suter were 
well received, also string quartets by Othmar Schoeck 
and K. H. David. 

the other, the unmistakable inflections, the 
telling commas, semi-colons, exclamation-pom ^ 
entheses, the absence of haste in making * hes —,]. 
out—all these things formed actual pictures 0 
ing significance, and built a structure before 
unquestionable in meaning, un forget able in ,nl jl , 
Ah! I said, why not make music talk hkc 
was a revelation, and my r first real success m ^ 
ing audiences dated from the applica ,ion 
gained not from a musician, but front an 

n actress 

Believe in t 

The Swedish festival showed the influence of that 
, .. — -- country s folk-music. Such an influence usually brings 

does not seem as if a story or program was necessary good results, but in the larger works there ’ 

. * (|ie od? 

e implicitly when I tell you 1 a ,y f ,tr- 
reason for my continuing to live is the ’[f e Ljj, ha> f 
pulse of creating a number of works of art ^ ^ jpu't 

for the creating of a Bach fugue, a Beethoven string 
quartet, or a Brahms symphony. In fact, Strauss himself 

danger that a too melodious style will militate against 
symphonit depth and dignity. This, fault was notice- 

their vital force in me. I recognize beyo ^ 
that this act of creating and completing * ® n ' t | icr »isr 
me and fills me with a desire of lif e . w , i, u nd. b ' 
I should not understand. I can, on the o( 'f on rianc c ^ 
quite well without any chance of a P er 

iMrne. Cahier is American by birth and was for some years 
a pupil of Jean de Reszke. She has held the post of prtma 
donna contralto in some of the leading opera houses of 
Europe and has met with very pronounced success wherever 
she has appeared.—E ditor of The Etude.] 

Besides the possession of a beautiful voice there are 
several other matters of prime importance which I 
would recommend most earnestly to the consideration 
of every vocal-student whose ambitions draw him to¬ 
ward Europe for the making of a career. Granted the 
gift of a good voice and a musical nature, health and 
money are the two things without which no vocal- 
student should think for a moment of venturing away 
from his native land. The many wrecks of anaemic 
American girl-students ill-fed and worse taken care of, 
that one finds all over Europe, makes me place this bit 
of advice and warning at the very head of a discussion 
of the matter of European study for Americans. Good 
food and happy surroundings are the first essentials for 
successful vocal study. 

I speak of this also because there was a time when 
living and study in Europe were so very cheap that 
the student could afford to make the venture on limited 
means; but those days are unfortunately over, and stu¬ 
dents should reckon that their expenses in Europe will 
he practically the same as for the study and accomoda¬ 
tions in America. 

Aside from all this, a vast majority of vocal-students 
come from America very poorly prepared musically for 
the task that is before them. I do not mean to say that 
one cannot get good vocal-training in America, but in 
German Europe particularly, vocal-training alone, even 
coupled with an exceptionally beautiful voice will not 
cany one very far along the royal road to success, 
what is demanded here from the singer, over and above 
that, is musicianship, and it is this in particular that 
American voice-students fall short. The big singers 
here, the ones who have achieved lasting success, are 
musicians as well as singers. They know their harmony 
and counterpoint, their Bach and Beethoven, they are 
intelligent appreciators of other branches of music 
besides their own specialty, and they are not under the 
impression, as unfortunately so many of our American 
that the whole range of the art of music is 

singers a 

to imagine that the art of coloratura singing can be 
studied best of all in Italy. There are good coloratura 
singers in every country of Europe, and every properly 
equipped singing teacher can teach coloratura, which 
is a mere mechanical part of the art of singing. 

I studied in France and made my operatic debut there, 
Here the opera-houses are mostly permanent institu¬ 
tions, and salaries, though small ones, are paid. The 
moral standards are low, and the salaries of the women 
members of the institutions are arranged on the supposi- 

- —i., au i,, c wuoie range oi me an ui — 

winded by the uppermost and lowermost notes of hood 
cr own voices. How many of the American voice- 
students who come to Europe are unable even to play 
cm own accompaniments at the piano! The establish¬ 
ment of State Conservatories in America, with such 
important branches of music study made compulsory 
or all students, would be the proper remedy for such 
ndition S . Such education is a most essential part of 
c . tra| ning of the young singer who is ambitious to 
e the heights of a European art reputation. 


Many Americans are in a quandary as to which part 
the’ U I°i^ e shall go for the best developments of 
Shall • , nts ’ I° r Gie best opportunities for success, 
is it,-'! ■ Ita, - V - France or Germany? If the student 
are f ln ? °I an operatic experience in Italy, there 
In 7 ' ,T1 P or ’ ant tilings for him to know in advance, 
lurh \ . placc - if a pay engagement is through great 
no A ° . ncd '. n Italy, the salary is always so small that 
detn , ttlerica j 1 s 'nger could think of living from it. Most 
sine' amS ’ * act ' * lave to P a y for the P rivi I e K e of 
is at" 1 ^ ! he on, y P errn anent opera in Italy at present 
lorn 6 ? Ca ' a ” ' n Milan so I am told, operatic per- 
irou/ neeS ' n l * le °’* 1er cities being given by traveling 
onen °' sin S ers . who wander like minstrels, from 
part of the Kingdom to the other. It is a fallacy 

Mme. Charles Cahier. 

tion that in each case there will be a kindly gentleman 
friend who will supply the balance needed for a liveli¬ 
hood Here again comes in the necessity for the student, 
particularly the girl student, to be well supplied with 
money of her own. 

Turning from Italy and France. 1 must now speak 
at more length of Germany. It is of course good for 
a singer to be cosmopolitan in his art, and experience 
in both Italy and France cannot but be valuable. How¬ 
ever it is to Germany that I would advise the young 
American singer to come when he has ambitions toward 
a European reputation. 


The foremost reason for my placing Germany ahead 
of the other two countries is that the standard of 
musical art as a whole is on a higher plane in Germany 
“nywhere else in the world. It is ,n 
that the big careers are made and it is in German 
opera-houses, above all others in Continental Europe, 
thM salaries are paid worthy of the abilities of the 
artists engaged. One has but to think of the many 
Africans engaged in German opera-houses in all parts 

Americans engage to realize that 

competent American artist. 

Let me call attention here to 
American voice-students 

another great fault of 
in coming abroad to 

destination without a speaking knowledge of the new 
language, many of them, in fact, with little or no 
knowledge at all of it. Could anything be more ridic¬ 
ulous? I consider that any singer who comes to a 
European country, expecting to make a career, without 
a speaking knowledge of the language of that country, 
places a handicap of at least two years on his career. 

It has been said that the French are most particular 
of all Europeans about diction in singing, but in my 
experience I have found that the Germans are the most 
severe in this respect. To them the sung word is of the 
utmost importance, that is, the word and the singing 
together, whereas in France and Italy audiences are 
more interested in the art of singing for its own sake 
alone. In addition, German is the most difficult of 
languages in which to sing, therefore it is all the more 
necessary that the American student should be 
thoroughly conversant with it on his arrival in the 

There have been so many successful American sing¬ 
ers in German opera-houses of recent years that the 
natural beauty of the American voice has come to be 
an admitted fact on all sides. But Americans must not 
bank on this natural beauty carrying them over all the 
obstacles which a singer with a career before him finds 
in his way, or he will be doomed to bitter disap¬ 
pointment long before he reaches the heights. More 
musicianship is what is to be wished for in American 
voice-students coming to Germany. One cannot expect 
that the audiences who have been accustomed to the art 
of a Lilli Lehmann, an Albert Niemann and to scores 
of other such vocal artists whom I could name, to be 
satisfied with mere beauty of tone-quality without ripe 
musicianship to back it up. Perhaps this is the reason 
why American singers have not been successful on the 
concert and oratorio stage in Europe, as they have been 
in opera. 


The way in which American vocalists who really have 
something to give have been received all over German 
Europe is proof enough that there is no prejudice here 
against the foreign artist. The American singer wlu> 
has something to say and who knows how to say it is 
received just as cordially as his German confrere, but 
the German public is not to be deceived by half-edu¬ 
cated talents. 

And now how to get an engagement after one lias 
reached the point where he feels that he can hold his 
own with the full-fledged members of the operatic fra¬ 
ternity. I myself never depended on an agent. Most 
of those who do, find out usually, much to their sorrow, 
that these gentlemen arc ever ready to take all sorts of 
fees from the operatic aspirant, and to give perhaps in 
return very elaborate promises, but too often, alas, little 
else. When equipped, 1 should advise candidates for 
operatic honors to go to the directors of various opera 
houses and ask for a personal audience. This is not as 
difficult as might be thought, even in the larger operas. 
I am told, for example, that the director of the Munich 
Opera will hear possible candidates on the payment of 
a fee of ten marks (which is added to the pension fund 
of the opera.) And the fact of being an American is 
by no means a bad recommendation now-a-days. All 
directors are constantly on the lookout for talented 
young artists, for those who have already acquired 
reputations are always drifting away to other cities 
where bigger salaries are offered, or to America. 



Many students have an idea that it is a very good 
plan to begin in an opera chorus, just for the experi¬ 
ence. They would do much better to keep out of 
opera-house choruses, and to devote the time which 
would thus be spent to perfecting their art to such a 
point where they can with confidence offer themselves 
as singers competent to sing roles. The place to begin 
is in one of the smaller court theaters that exist by the 
score almost in German Europe. The big opera-house 
s no place for the beginner. They have no time to 


the hand of a musician which has been swS?^ 
oped for playing. This appearance is deceptive u 
belonging to this type are either hereditary 
size, blood circulation, and muscular develop!! t 
been attained by primitive processes. P nt “ aTt 
Such hands must be considered to be a ffi • 
apparatus only for primitive functions as dist.W?! 
from the highly specialized motions of instn^ 

..... it - , ----- --- The opinion is generally held by musicians that great technique. Possessing strength and endure?- ? 

6 "a h, .T ^ ? Ut t le very fact that the bi K technical proficiency requires a very high grade of mus- execution of movements permittinsr the dm l™ ^ 
tHeJfor 1 3W elr 5eS - forCeS * rorn . t,le srna, * er court ical intelligence. The difficulties in music which require employment of the four fingers and thnmk ai1 , t00S 
ranries ^T^* 3 ”? 63 con . stantly 'T> t,le latter; va- intellectual power or mental concentration are not pre- grasping any object or clenching the fist) 


[The writer of this article is a Russian teacher residing 
'n London, who has made a specialty of developing the 
The following is selected from a published work on 
-*-*--* --Note.] 

cancies which must of necessity be filled by beginners. 

There the new singer finds men who, if he shows the 
requisite talent, are willing to work with him, and here 
he has the opportunity of singing numerous roles and 
of appearing often, as the organization of such an 
opera-house is neither large nor wealthy enough to eVe " 
keep singers on its list who do not earn their incomes. 

This is just the young singer’s chance to perfect him¬ 
self in stage-deportment, to begin to imbibe the tradi¬ 
tions of the German theater, and to accustom himself 
to singing across the footlights. 

This brings us to the important consideration of at- 

sented by the technique of the instrument. The most type ; 

low degree of human 
Convincing proof that musical talent and technical 
ability have nothing in common is offered by the num¬ 
ber of eminent musicians of limited ability as perform¬ 
ers. The names of Wagner, Berlioz, Verdi, Schumann, 
Hugo Wolf, Dvorak are among those of indisputable 
genius as musicians but unregarded as soloists. Some 

mosphere (much-abused and overworked word.) At- technical difficulties afford visual evidence that they are _ _ >v „.vu 

mosphere can only exist where tradition exists. We solely a physical and not an intellectual problem, as. less skill than the movements of playing, 

have done what we could to create it in America, or for instances, stretches on the piano or violin. The In the Over-developed Type the amplitude of 

• c , —. .- .0 un me piano or Violin. 1 

at least to find a successful substitute for it, but the power of separating the fingers so as to compass 
tact remains that for the study of tradition in music tenth on either of these instruments can never be 

there is no way open to the student but ' ‘ 

extended sojourn at the very source of the art. Art 
in all its forms hold a position of such importance in 
the life of Europe that can hardly be realized by 
Americans who have lived all their lives in America, 
and the artist over here has a standing that is 
unknown in America. He is somebody in the 
munity. Artistic enterprise is encouraged and sup¬ 
ported by both the state and city governments, which 
subsidize the operas, symphony orchestras and conser¬ 
vatories of the country. 

Opera in Germany is given entirely in the language 
of the country. French, Italian, Russian and German 
operas, all are sung in German. To me this is most in¬ 
artistic, particularly, for example, to have to sing such 
an opera as Bizet’s “Carmen” in German. Exceptions 
are made only in the- - ' - . 

of each finger, of the thumbs and wrists, is restricted in 

- - a11 directions, while the motions of artistic instrumental 

founded With mental gifts or intellectual strength. technique require a large reserve of freedom of 

A description of the ideal playing hand proves still motion so as to ensure ease, looseness, elasticity, and 
more clearly the truth of the assertion that technique speed of recovery. The greater the gain of this type 
is solely a matter of physical and manual ability. in size and muscular power by such primitive methods 

auite l hC - ^ lle * quabt,es °* tbe highest form of artistic as those already mentioned, or by instrumental practice. 
q technique are speed and evenness. These depend more the greater is the loss of skill, speed, looseness, and 

on the structure of the body of the hands, the wrist, elasticity. Gain and loss remain equally balanced if no 

and arms than on muscular power. The shape, pro- scientific method of development be adopted. The span 

portions, and condition of the hands are not only between the fingers is limited; the fingers cannot be 

equally as important, but far more important for the lifted above the level of the back of the hand; the 
playing than muscular development. joints are large and stiff; this type must be generally 

The quick and elastic motions of the cat cannot be described as stiff and clumsy, 
attributed solely to the quality or quantity of its mus- The examination of a still more advanced variety of 
cles. Speed and equality of motion are unthinkable this type, such as the hand of a common laborer, 
without elasticity. The rapidity of the roll on the proves that the more strenuous the exercise the m 

- - —. - «- j ~Kju we imute oiiciiuuus uie exercise me muic 

. - , , of a ver >’ distinguished guest fettle drum is not created by a corresponding speed of restricted the motions become. The finger-joints have 

singer coming from a foreign country. Thus when the drummer s muscles, but by the elasticity of the grown so stiff that the fingers are permanentlv curved 

Caruso appeared as _ Don Jose m “Carmen” at the whalebone drum-sticks and the drum-head of skin. and crooked. Suppleness has almost completely dis¬ 

appeared, and the hand, instead of seeming to be an 

- — “Carmen” at the whalebone drum-sticks and the drum-head of skin 

Munich Royal Opera last fall, he sang the whole of the 

opera in French, the rest of the company singing Ger- A COMPARISON. _. , , „ , 

- - -- - - *• — 

with Caruso in French. A great mixture! 

perfect and luxurious springs, and the second by a 
springless country cart, and the same horse which draws 
OPERA IN THE vernacular. each in turn may be represented by the muscular power. 

I am only in favor of singing each opera in the cart proceeds slowly and with bumps and jolts, 

tongue in which it was composed. In singing transla- wb ’ Ie the landau runs easily, rapidly, and smoothly, 
tions the most ridiculous discrepancies are bound to on l y ean tbe use of the muscles be impeded by 

occur between the text and the music. The words of a defects in the structure of the hands, such as stiff joints 

sentence to which the composer has given a particularly or crooked fingers, but their development may even de- 

expressive musical interpretation come, in the transla- Pend on the condition and proportions of the hands. sennea as small ,n size poor in muscle Coften sec.....* 

fr f °™ the onginal language, on an entirely different But few individuals are born with perfect hands for to be only skin and bone) white and bloodless. Al- 

part of the musical phrase. How can artistic unity be playing, which explains the comparative rarity of great though its movements possess in general, more inde- 

preserved when the composer has written ‘ hate” with a technicians. A description of the two general fypes pendlnce, they are neither ekst c nor fi?m; therefore, 

particularly poignant musical accent, and in the trani- will ... .. . 8 . dl types ,. . ’ . y d e elulcr elast ' c norm..,, _ ^ 


Like the foregoing, this type may appear independ¬ 
ently of the occupation of the individual, but it is mosi 
easily pictured as belonging to those who neither toil 
nor spin. In comparison with the first type of the or¬ 
dinary hand, the finger, wrist, and forearm motions are 
much freer and greater in amplitude. It may be de¬ 
scribed as small in size, poor in muscle (often seeminS 

lation one finds the word “love” instead, under the same 
note? In this matter of singing operas in their original 
languages, the Metropolitan Opera House in New York, 
has set a standard which well might he imitated else¬ 
where. As for opera in English, when we have an 
American or English Mozart. Beethoven or Wagner, 
we will have English opera that is worth while. 

About the mere technical part of singing, I may say 
that 1 do not think that most teachers pay enough atten¬ 
tion to breathing. If the engine is not all right to begin 
with, you cannot expect the whole machine to run prop- 

... . 1 - — st.iciai types 

the trans- will make quite clear what provides the hands with this 

this quality- of elasticity and why it occurs so rarely. 

The hands of most individuals, including the majority 
of musicians, can only be described as ordinary. They 
may be divided into two contrasting groups, each of 
which is equally unadapted to the development of ar¬ 
tistic instrumental technique. The classification can 
only be a general one, for hands may frequently be 
found possessing, in addition to all the worst char¬ 
acteristics of their own group, one or more favorable 
unfavorable qualities of the opposite variety. In 

irral lb** „ ( .1,.-- -• • . . .... 


ither accuracy, speed, nor a®I 

" i wiv iiiiviv iiiuviiiuv. |y mil Ujy | t_1 i • 11 ‘v vaini^, ill 

erlv. Too few vocal teachers realize the importance of Seneral, the hands of the great majority of individuals 

breathing and know how to impart the principles of resemble either those of Class One, the Over-developed 

proper breathing to their pupils. Good breathing comes TvDP! nr r,aec T ""' TT “ J — ' ' * ~ 

more naturally to men singers than to women 

Type; or Class Two, the Under-developed Type. 


This type may be found in either sex, and its occur¬ 
rence is independent of heredity or occupation Fven T'\~ ■1"' “T “T** 111 ’ v “‘‘ an . ura cy; 

the hands of individuals who exerel- " dast,c . ,ty and suppleness with firmness and m 

count of the wearing of corsets by the latter. This 
custom tends to weaken the muscles which control the 
breathing apparatus. 

In conclusion let me urge again that the American the hands of individuals who " -ana suppleness witii nrmness a..u »--- _ 

vocal-student coming to Europe bring with him health, occupation mav belnno- tbu , \ . "? manua l must have the advantages of both hard and so ((i; 

ship and a plentiful supply of -U: luSHvTe fef°t£ ** ** 


As the most advanced specimens of the Over- 
oped Type were approaching ossification, so the U® cr 
developed Type is approaching atrophy, and 
suffers from deficient blood circulation. At its w °t* 
this type has almost lost the possibility of develops 
by even the most scientific methods. 


Whatever excellent characte'ristics for P !a - vi ” g ^ 
found naturally in the ordinary hand are almost m v 
ably coupled with qualities equally unfavorable, 
hand which is suited for the artistic technique 0 . jr . 
violin, piano, or ’cello must combine only j. 
acteristics of both types of the ordinary hand. « 
unite size and strength with flexibility and ,ooS .. ; t 

sound musicianship and a plentiful supply of money, lustrated by the hands“of’tW 'V* L ,-' Sl ana coml),ne tl,e me nts of ‘he large wna^ To 

These three essentials, coupled with natural ability, trade, or any employment reouirimr cr f & UI ^‘ craft ‘ smaI1 ha nd; it must join strength with hgh< 

without which I take it for granted, of course, that no tion. such L A at n ] an ual exer- create the ideal hand the best characteristics * ^ 

types of the ordinary hand must he se * ec,e “ u *|. eD this 
bined, and all their bad qualities deleted. , a 

has been accomplished the hand is in a con 
acquire brilliant instrumental technique, * pr 
drances to its development hay? ; been remove • 

r granted, of course, that 
American would attempt to storm the European art 
citadel, will put the young American singer on an equal 
footing with his European confrere on tht road to fame 
and fortune in the musical world. 

tion. such as digging or lifting heavy’wejghtT' < 
those who devote themselves to violent sports and 
gymnastics. 1 nQ 

are l ar ? e well-developed muscles and 
good blood circulation. Superficially regarded, this 

the etude 


any object or clenching the fist'),TaU7fc 

- - - astonishingly feeble in performing i so ! 

difficult hand or finger motions in playing, such as trills. finger movements. When one finger is used al ** 
staccati, scales, and arpeggios on the piano and stringed Press down a string of the violin or ’cello or dew* ^ 
instruments are perfectly easy of comprehension by key on the pianoforte or organ the other fingers stT* 
even a low of k™™ intelligence. and press simultaneously. Moreover hands of this type 

.... inclined to exaggerate the required weight or pres- 
sure and to apply more force than is desired for artistic 

With all these serious faults the gravest fault % 
sessed by this type is the limitation of motion. Tfe 
extent of its finger movements is so restrained as to un¬ 
fit the hand even for employments which require much 

With the falling of the first Autumn leaves a great tinue them at a smaller fee. A good way to raise one’s 
pulse of business and professional activity flows teaching rates when the proper time comes is to send out 

through our entire country and awakens us to the fact 
that the new season is alive. Ten months of the 
business and teaching year are now before you. How 
will you .fill them—with prosperity, progress and 
happiness or with indifference, loss and discomfort? 
Much depends upon the discretion, 
initiative and industry you put into 
your plans right now. 

Ninety million people on our North 
American continent are considering 
the vital problem “How to get new 
Business?” Most of these people 
must succeed—it is the matter of their 
daily bread. Many will fail and a few 
will invite prosperity by going about 
getting the new business in the right 
way. Work with your pencil a few 
moments and see if the problem does 
not separate itself into the following 

I Whom do I want my advertising 

to reach? 

II What kind of advertising do I 

wan t to have them receive ? 

III Through what channels may I 

reach them most productively 

and economically? 

Who? What? and How? If we can 
answer these questions successfully we 
■nay feel sure of larger returns than 
night come through some haphazard 


What kind of pupils do I want? 

A noted actor said recently that his 
Profession was quite different from 
l «at of any other, in that he had to 
start in a new business enterprise every 
? e ^ r * matter how successfully he 
ad played in last year’s play the new 
P|ay might not be anything but a 
dismal failure. This is only partly 
e. Every magazine makes a new 
wsiness every month—every news- 
aper every day. You are not going 
>o continue the Herald, or the Globe- 
, h "‘° Cr . al ' or the Despatch if you find 
in 1 a few >ssues are not to your lik- 
8- It is so with every established 
iness. Continued patronage de- 
im„ Upon con tinued and constantly 
proving service. Ask any merchant 
hav» C W lat Custom ers he would rather 
toll m ° re tllan a ’l and he will 

you “My old customers.” The 
to S1C *f ac * 1 . er should first of all seek 
, reach his old and desirable cus- 

teah • TherC ' S a highly successful 
I C cr ln an American metropolis who makes the proud 
eiilf u ,le ' S I ’ ow teaching in families with which 
or his father have been connected for over 
c. , years ' That teacher’s business is as staple as 
, n ar ^ Oil The teacher who loses his old pupils 
to h' Can n0t account for their loss may do well to look 
is own work for a possible so'ution. 
out n!^ e besinnin 8 of every season most teachers weed 
th tT un desirable pupils of the past year and retain 
th S * • un< f es ' ra ble pupils are by no means always 
* Birpils with limited means. Some pupils are so 
rv talented that the teacher may well afford to con- 

a notice of the new rate and at the asme time inform the 
old pupils that the new rate will apply only to new 
pupils. Gradually the old ones complete their terms 
and drop out and new ones at a higher rate supplant 




Malcom Pratt Bartlett 


Real Economy in Modern 
Musical Education 


Illustration No. 1. 

(Electrotype », Tta f , 'J? r n ^ i Xal’rate of prinlini) of ami kind i* ti er done 

PU X e ^Ul^T ( 7l -‘Electrotiipe of Oes,„n I, ) 


Th, teacher Md. «• 

nc wuu«u __ ' ,cacber bas 

gone'down" though "the fatuous plan ^ ‘aking jany 

lu pupil" v«» 

XViyoa• ™. nsa 

considered. of hu man nature, you .nay 

Jr Th,«H.,r did .hi, «* l» 

picked his own pupils. Other teachers wondered how 
he maintained such a high standard. It was really 
very simple. As soon as he made up his mind that a 
certain person would be a desirable pupil—that that 
person would profit by the right instruction and show 
appreciation through hard work—the writer made a 
deliberate campaign by employing all dignified methods 
of securing that particular pupil. The 
name was entered into a card cata¬ 
log and the pupil received recital pro¬ 
grams, circulars, letters, until he reg¬ 
istered or went to some other reliable 
teacher. Even when one’s class is full 
it is a fine plan to keep on the outlook 
for new pupils of this kind. Get them 
interested and strive to place them 
upon a waiting list. In the latter 
years of his teaching the writer almost 
always had a waiting list of ten or 
twelve pupils. This is really the only 
way in which the teacher’s income may 
be insured against loss from occasional 
broken terms and sicknesses. 


When one is organizing a teaching 
class it would seem that all pupils 
would be desirable. However, as soon 
as the teacher has a foothold it be¬ 
comes apparent that some pupils lead 
to a waste of both time and money. 
Irregular pupils are a source of con¬ 
stant annoyance and loss. Pupils 
who are obstinate and overbearing are 
always difficult problems for the young 
teacher. Short term pupils—that is, 
pupils who start in about October 
twentieth and end about May tenth 
making the teacher’s business year 
about seven months instead of ten are 
always pupils to avoid. “Touring” 
pupils, that is, pupils who go from one 
teacher to another, never remaining 
with one more than a few weeks can 
be very irritating to the teacher. 
Pupils who have been “poor pay"— 
that is, those who evade paying their 
bills promptly—had better be dropped 
at once. They cause “more bother 
than they are worth." Of course it 
is not possible to cut down your adver¬ 
tising appeal so that it will not reach 
these pupils, but in accepting new 
pupils the teacher who has readied a 
position where he may be a little in¬ 
dependent should make his selections 
carefully or he will soon find that he 
has a class composed of material that is next to worth¬ 


The teacher who through the summer has kept up 
the enthusiasm of his pupils so that he is able to have 
them present an acceptable program early in the season 
(September or October) has one of the best possible 
attractions for securing new pupils. Printer’s ink 
suggests the desirability for music study but a wcl' 
managed early opening recital is so very much more 
effective that it ean not be compared with the other 
method. This does not mean that printer’s ink may he 




dispensed with. The recital emphasizes all that you 
have said in your previous printed advertising. Several 
of the most prosperous schools in the country depend 
upon this early recital plan to insure a prompt start of 
the teaching season. One teacher of the writer’s ac¬ 
quaintance, when unable to give a pupils’ recital, gave 
one himself and made a kind of opening Reception 
of it. It has the effect of a rally and saved many a 
wasted hour and consequently wasted dollar for the 
enterprising gentleman. 


Circulars of music teachers are 
often very amusing to the pro¬ 
fessional advertisement writer. 
He will tell you that they are 
weak where they should be 
strong and are filled with a vast 
amount of matter that might very 
,well have been left out. Mr. 
•George Bender, in his Business 
Manual for Musicians, goes into 
this subject so carefully and 
thoroughly that in the present 
article I can do nothing better 
than advise readers who are in¬ 
terested in the subject to secure 
■ Mr. Bender’s book and read it 
carefully. However there are 
some things which we may con¬ 
sider here to advantage. 

In getting up a circular you 
should have in mind the specific 
purpose for which the circular 
is intended. That is, you should 
have a professional bull’s-eye 
that the circular must hit or be 
wasted. The first announcement 
I come across is not an adver¬ 
tisement in the general sense 
but rather a year book. It is 
a maze of words dealing with 
those things in which the pupil 
is least likely to be interested. 
Three pages are given up to 
school regulations severe enough 
to scare away many of those 
who do not realize that these 
regulations are only enforced 
half way. 

You should assume that your 
prospect has already cultivated a 
desire to study with some 
teacher. In your business-get- 
ling circular you can not afford 
t< devote space to advertising 
music as an art. You may do 
all of the missionary work of 
that sort during the season that 
you may choose to do, but in 
your initial appeal for pupils 
confine yourself to facts about 
your own work. 

trate the type that may be used. Those who are un¬ 
able to secure original designs for circulars may arrange 
with the publishers of The Etude for the use of these 
designs. The first represents the title page of a four 
page folder measuring three by six inches. 

The first page is devoted to securing direct interest. 
It gives the name of the teacher and the address. The 
single additional line should be sufficient to make the 
casual reader interested in musical education open the 
circular and read the contents. Remember that we 



Your circular must do three 
things to be successful: 

a. It must stimulate direct 

b. It must create desire. 

c. It must suggest immediate 

In stimulating direct interest 
the physical appearance of the 
circular figures largely. The size 
must be convenient. The size 
three by six inches is desirable (Electrotypes 

as it fits easily into an envelope 
of the ordinary commercial 
size. If the teacher wishes to be a little less conven¬ 
tional another size may be adopted, but the matter of 
proportions and the relation of the printing on 
the page to the size of the page is by no means an 
insignificant matter. The color of the ink. the color 
of the stock or paper, the quality of the printing and the 
paper, the selection of the type, etc., are all matters 
which should be very carefully weighed. Weak, ineffec¬ 
tive color combinations are quite as worthless as badly 
selected, jarring colors. Your circular should have a 
strong, clean effect. It should suggest your own 
personality. Distinctive original border designs are 
hard to secure. The ones employed on this page illus- 


AMES McNlEL WHISTLER, the famous Ameri¬ 
can artist, has caught the spirit of “Music in the 
Home” in a splendid manner in the above picture. 

Music in the home brings one of the greatest 
joys of life to every member of the household. By 
the adoption of modern methods the early musical 
training of the child may be conducted rapidly, eco¬ 
nomically, delightfully. You are cordially invited to 
investigate the results of the work being done by Miss 
Agatha Williams in this special line. Call or write 
at any time and Miss Williams will gladly make an 
appointment. She is always at home Wednesday 
evenings when applicants will be welcome, and a con¬ 
venient opportunity to inspect her many endorsements 
is afforded. 


372 Flatbush Ave. .'. BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

the whole teaching year from early Sept to thol 
of June insures a real saving of both time anrf J, iSI 
Mr. Bartlett’s classes in pianoforte have w 
particularly successful, not solely because of i 
distinctive methods employed but because of * 
exellent teaching and practice discipline his „„ 7 
have so willingly followed. ^ P' s 

An inspection of the album of commendation 
letters received from well-known teachers as w C 
as from pleased patrons, may be made at anv el 

in Mr. Bartlett’s office- 

On the third page of the tit 
cular the prospect might fim 
the following: 

During the Coming Sea¬ 
son Mr. Bartlett will con¬ 
duct special classes as fol- 

Class in Music History 
Wednesday at 4. P. M. 
Class in Advanced Technic 
Saturday at 9 A. M. 
Class in Elementary Harmony 
Saturday at 11 A. M. 
These classes will differ 
from the conventional classes 
of the kind because of the 
deep personal interest which 
Mr. Bartlett has always 
taken in making the work 
of his pupils as broad as 
possible. A slight additional 
fee is charged for admission 
to these new classes. 

Air. Bartlett welcomes con¬ 
ferences with prospective 
pupils at his studio on Wed¬ 
nesdays at five and Friday at 
eight P. M. 

The last page you may safely 
free from any advertising flavor. 
Ey doing this the dignity of 
.. our appeal will be greatly raised. 
For instance, if you chose to do so 
you might have the entire back¬ 
page covered with a motto or 
quotation in Roycroft style— 
that is, in sizable type and with a 
simple but appropriate margin 
after the following fashion: 

Illustration No. 2. 

szfjxm * 

are going upon the principle that the teacher’s appro¬ 
priation is not large enough to permit of its being used 
in an attempt to reach any but those who are already 
interested in securing a teacher. Shotgun distribution 
of circulars would be only an extravagance for the 
average teacher. This knowledge is of real help to us 
in getting up our “copy.” It saves us from wasting 
precious space. 

|f your prospect is interested enough to open your cir¬ 
cular he would find inside something like tile following- 
The first economy in music study is best accom¬ 
plished by a prompt start. Regular, systematic 
thorough training, not now and then, but through 

t be p r ' ntf(! 

antique I 

The size of each page vfifl 1 *. 
by 6J4 -che S . The + + 
should be a deep bIue l 
ferably Prussian blue. . 

The cost of <i ve .. ^ 

copies of this circular shoal 
exceed the following rate. • 
Cost of electrotype de- ^ 

sign of border. 

Cost of composition (setting type). 

Cost of printing (two sides of paper). j_(J) 

Cost of paper.. 

Another form of circular which is much 
style and quite attractive for the purpose is ^ 
ing. This may be printed in “India Tint «> ^ P i 

(size 5% by 8J4) with photo-brown ink. 
making would be: $0.75 

Electrotype of picture.’ 1.50 

Composition (setting type). 1.5® 

Printing. fi 

Cost of paper. 

(Continued on page 072.) 

the etude 

The Artist’s Life 

The Virtuoso’s Career As It Really Is 


ITlie following discussion of the life of the Virtuoso as 
it really is, consists of part of one of the introductory 
chapters of the forthcoming book “Great Flanlsts upon the 
I./of pianoforte Playing." The remainder of the book 
U devoted to practical advice upon pianists’ problems from 
die pianists themselves.) 

When Johann Strauss, King of the Waltz, titulary 
descendant of Terpisichore and Orpheus, great-grand¬ 
father of all the musical widows, merry, winsome and 
otherwise, took it upon himself to relate musically the 
gaieties of the artist’s life, he did it in this fashion. 

e*«m "the artist’s life” one of the most famous 


Perh a p S you have waltzed to this a score of times, 
m >°u have not, “try it over on your piano,” and 
Wore long the magical charm of the melodies of the 
■hie Austrian music-maker for the court balls will 
send vour imagination over the seas to the Prater or 
j' 1 ' ^"\gsirassc with its population of “types,” its long- 
ured, dreamy-eyed, ravenous “masters,” its budding 
'irtuosos (alas, the blasted buds!), its atmosphere of 
immortality diluted in echtc Pilsner, but always music, 
, ln k bmes, glorious melodies, great symphonies, 
IP °i, eS Ha > dn , Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert or 
.h. J*~ f or is not Vienna the veritable Walhalla of 
-Masters ? Who knows but that vou may be rub- 
is ,n f. elbows with some Schubert of to-morrow? Who 
■ , lat gaunt young man looking earnestly into the 
lik ° W " 1 " l ' lat co,, diterei near the Graben? See, he 
7.7 A' 1 a h'\v Heller, glances at the tempting cakes— 
h « his head and thrusting the coins in his equally 
.'’ 8ry P° c ket passes hurriedly on. Some one whis- 
crif * hat 0 ' s ,lle young pianist about whom the 
tr .' C j. are already wrangling. Fine omen when doc- 
hav < T a *’ ree ' The budding Herr Technikowsky is to 
l f * *urce years of hard but priceless study with no 
,7. a htarher than the great Leschetizky himself, and 
then America with its millions. 


“AlmS*. CJn ' C ' las contende d that the much-despised 
<hc ,, y , dollar” lias been the greatest incentive to 
thouArtP virtuoso "i European music centres. Al- 
cenaini ‘ . may he true in a number of cases, it is 
'ravel u " ,us, .' n others. Many of the virtuosos find 
'he hi m ' nur ' ca so distasteful that notwithstanding 
ge golden 1»ait, the managers have the greatest 

difficulty in inducing tile pianists to come back. In¬ 
deed, there are many artists of great renown whom the 
managers would be glad to coax to our country but 
who have withheld tempting offers for years. One of 
these is Moritz Moszkowski, probably the most popular 
of modern pianoforte composers of high-class music. 
Grieg, when he finally consented to make the voyage to 
America, placed his price at two thousand five hundred 
dollars for every concert—a sum which any manager 
would regard prohibitive, except in the case of one 
world-famous pianist. 

The inconveniences of travel in America have been 
ridiculously exaggerated in Europe, and many virtuosos 
dread the thought of an American trip, with the great 
ocean yawning between the two continents, and red¬ 
skinned savages just beyond New Y ork or certainly 
not far from Chicago. Dc Pachmann detests the 
ocean, and when he comes over in his favorite month 
of June he does not dare return until the following 
June. Others who have never visited America must 
get their idea of American travel from some such ac¬ 
count as that of Charles Dickens in his unforgivable 
American Notes (1842), in which lie said, in describ¬ 
ing one of our railroads: 

“There Is a great deal 
great deal of wall, not in 
shriek and a Ml. The ci 
ing thirty, forty, fifty pei 
there Is usually a stoi 

and you see the hot i 

jolting, a great deal of noise, a 
i inuen window, a locomotive engine, a 
e cars are like shabby omnibuses hold- 
people. In the centre of the carriage 
e, fed with charcoal or anthracite coal, 
part red hot. It Is Insufferably close, 
ir fluttering between yourself and any 
happen to look at.” 

There could have been but little improvement in our 
iilroads in 1872 when Rubinstein came to America, 
yr although lie accepted $40,000 for 215 concerts dur- 
ig his first trip, he refused an offer of $125,000 for 
nly 50 concerts when a manager tried to persuade him 

y return. . . _ 

American railroads now present the acme of coiti¬ 
on, convenience, and even luxury in travel, yet the 
luropean artist lias difficulty in adjusting himself to 
surneys of thousands of miles crowded in a short 
-inter’ season when he has been accustomed to little 
-ips of a few hundred kilometres. He conies to dread 
te trains as we might a prison van. Paderewski re- 
orts 10 a private car, but even this luxurious mode of 
avel may be very monotonous and exhausting. 

The great distances must certainly account for some 
f the evidences of strain which deform theffacewnd 

TaRsmanTeems to thrive upon miics of railroad 
-avel as do the crews of the trains but the virtuoso, 
ragged from concert to concert by his showman, 
tired—oh, so tired, pale, wan, listless and mdif- 
erent At the beginning of the season he is quite 
"other person. The magnetism that has done » 
j win him fame shines in hi* cyes and seems to cma 

Jew^York with a cinematographic recollection of 
telegraph poles flying past the windows, au- 
ienc aft r ^dfcnce. sleeping cars, buddmg geniuses, 
ie inevitable receptions *tar«n£2-Tw 

lesses of chicken salad or luke-warm ojstcrs. sweet 
fl.imrs ” who like Heine’s mythical tribe of 
oung thing*'*ho. > havf thc 

arsis z ss this. * ** 

lanyhave confessed to me that their American tours 
ave been literal nightmares. 

One of the greatest pianists was obliged to stay i 
Vw York for a while before attempting the voyage 
,ew York lor a ^ wa$ so weak from thc 

ieor?Tf the tour that he could scarcely write his 
fme His haggard face suggested the tortures of a 
•olam a rt than Buffalo. Kansas C.ty Denver 
orquaiiio tired and faltering, 

„d Pittsburgh. His 'ok* wa. ,_ BCttinK 

home as soon as possible. To have talked with him 
upon music at that time would have been an injustice. 
Accordingly, I led him away from the subject and 
dwelt upon the woes of his native Poland, and much 
to his surprise, left him without the educational mate¬ 
rial of which 1 had been in quest. He asked the rea¬ 
son, and I told him that a musical conference at that 
time could serve no purpose. 

As men and women, aside from the attainments 
which have made them illustrious, virtuosos are for the 
most part very much like ordinary mortals who have 
to content themselves at the foot of Parnassus. It has 
been my privilege to know thirty or more of the most 
eminent artists, and some have become good personal 
friends. It is interesting to observe how several very 
different types of individuals may succeed in winning 
public favor as virtuosos. Indeed, except for the long¬ 
haired caricature which the public accepts as the con¬ 
ventional virtuoso there is no “virtuoso type.” Here 
is a business man, here an artist, here an engineer, here 
a jurist, here an actor, here a poet and here a freak, 
all of them distinguished performers. Perhaps the en¬ 
thusiastic music-lover will resent the idea of a freak 
becoming famous as a pianist, but I have known no 
less than three men who could not possibly be other¬ 
wise described, but who have nevertheless made both 
fame and fortune as virtuosos. 


The anthropologist who chooses to conduct special 
investigations of freaks can find no more entertaining 
field than that of the remarkable freaks of the brain, 
shown in thc cases of some astonishing performers 
whose intelligence and mental capacity in other ways 
has been negligible. The classic case of Blind Torn, 
for instance, was that of a freak not so very far re¬ 
moved in kind from thc Siamese Twins, or General 
Tom Thumb. Born a slave in (jcorgia, and wholly 
without what teachers would term a musical education. 
Blind Tom amazed many of the most conservative 
musicians of his time. It was possible for him to re¬ 
peat difficult compositions after hearing them played 
only once. I conversed with him a number of years 
ago in New York, only to find that intellectually anti 
physically he was allied to the cretin. 

Blind Tom's peculiar ability lias led many hasty com¬ 
mentators to conclude that music is a wholly separate 
mental faculty to be found particularly in a more or 
less shiftless and irresponsible class of gifted but in¬ 
tellectually limited human beings. The few cases of 
men and women whose musical talent seems to eclipse 
their minds so that they remain in utter darkness to 
everything else in life, should not be taken as a l»sis 
for judging other artists of real genius and undisputed 
mental breadth. 1 have in mind, however, thc case of 
one pianist who is very widely known and highly 
lauded, but who is very slightly removed front thc class 
of Blind Tom. A trained alienist, one acquainted with 
thc difference between the eccentricities which fre¬ 
quently accompany greatness and the unconscious phy¬ 
sical and psychical evidences of idiocy which agree so 
clearly with the antics of the chimpanzee or the droll 
Capuchin monkeys, might find in thc performer to 
whom I refer a subject for some very interesting, not 
to say startling reflections. Few have ever been suc¬ 
cessful in inducing this pianist to talk upon any other 
subject than music for more than a few minutes at a 
time. Another pianist who was distinguished as a 
Liszt pupil, and who toured America repeatedly, 
seemed to have a hatred for the piano that amounted 
to an obsession. “Look,” be exclaimed, "1 am its slave. 
It has sent nic round and round the world, night after 
night, year after year. It has cursed me like a wan¬ 
dering Jew. No rest, no home, no liberty. Do you 
wonder that I drink to forget it?” 




And drink he did in Bacchanalian measure! One 
time he gave an unconscious exhibition of his technical 
ability that while regrettable, would have been of im¬ 
mense interest to psychologists who are seeking to 
prove that music depends upon a separate operation of 
a special “faculty.” During his American tours I 
called frequently upon this virtuoso for the purpose of 
investigating his method of playing. He was rarely 
free from the influence of alcohol for more than a few 
hours at a time. One morning it was necessary for 
me to see him professionally, and when I found him 
at his hotel he was in a truly disgraceful condition. I 
remember that he was unable to stand, from the fact 
that he fell upon me while I was sitting in a Morris 
chair. He was barely able to talk, and just prior to 
my leaving he insisted upon scrawling upon his visit¬ 
ing card, “Zur freundlichen Errinerung, auf einen sehr 
spaten Abend.” (Friendly remembrances of a very 
late evening.) Since it was still very early in the 
morning, it may be realized that he had lost all idea of 
his whereabouts. Nevertheless, he sat at the piano 
keyboard and played tremendously difficult composi¬ 
tions by Liszt and Brahms—compositions which com¬ 
pelled his hands to leap from one part of the keyboard 
to the other as in the case of the Liszt Campanella. 
He never missed a note until he lost his balance upon 
the piano stool and fell to the floor. Disgusting and 
pathetic as the exhibition was, I could not help feeling 
that I was witnessing a marvelous instance of auto¬ 
matism, that wonderful power of the mind working 
through the body to reproduce, apparently without ef¬ 
fort or thought, operations which have been repeated 
so many times that they have become “second nature.” 
More than this, it indicated clearly that while the greater 
part of the man’s body was “dead to the world,” 
the faculty he had cultivated to the highest extent still 
remained alive. Some years later this man succumbed 
to alcoholism. 

rather than scholarly. He strives to elevate rather 
than to teach—in the strictly pedagogical sense. Some 
of the greatest performers have been'notoriously weak 
as teachers. They do not seek the walls of the col¬ 
lege, neither do they long for the cheap Bohemianism 
that so many of the French feuilletonists delight in de¬ 
scribing. (Why should the immorality of the artist’s 
life be laid at the doors of fair Bohemia?) The artist’s 
life is wrapped up in making his readings of master 
works more significant, more eloquent, more beautiful. 
He is interested in everything that contributes to his 
artistry, whether it be literature, science, history, art or 
the technic of his own interpretative development. He 
penetrates the various mystic problems which surround 
piano playing by the infallible process of persistent 
study and reflection. The psychical phase of his work 
interests him immensely, particularly the phenomena of 
personal attraction—often called magnetism. 


Magnetism is surely one of the most enviable pos¬ 
sessions of the successful pianist. Just what magnet¬ 
ism is and how it comes to be, few psychologists at¬ 
tempt to relate. We all have our theories, just why 
one pianist who often blunders as readily as a Rubin¬ 
stein, or who displays his many shortcomings at every 
concert can invariably draw larger audiences and 
arouse more applause than his confrere with weaker 
vital forces, although he be admittedly a better tech¬ 
nician, a more highly educated gentleman and perhaps 
a more sensitive musician. 

Charles Frohmann, keenest of theatrical producers, 
attributed the actor’s success to “vitality,” and in do¬ 
ing this he merely chose one of the weaker synonyms 
of magnetism. Vitality in this sense does not imply 
great bodily strength. It is rather soul strength, mind- 
strength, life-strength. Professor John D. Quackenbos, 
.rt.M., M.D., formerly of Columbia University, essays 
the following definition of magnetism in his excellent 
Hypnotic Therapeutics: 



Contrasted with a type of this kind may be men¬ 
tioned such men as Sauer, Rachmaninov, d’Albert, 

Paderewski, Godowsky, Bachaus, Rosenthal, Pauer, 

Joseffy, Stojowski, Scharwenka, Gabrilowitsch, Hof¬ 
mann, Bauer, Lhevinne, to say nothing of the ladies, 

Bloom field-Zeisler, Carreno, Goodson, et al., many of 
whom are intellectual giants. Most all are exceedingly 

regular in their habits, and at least two are strong tern- nessed" so often when one possessed with volcanic 
perance advocates. Intellectually, pianists of this class tality overwhelms a great audience 
represent a very remarkable kind of mentality. One is The old idea that magnetism is a kind of invisible 
impressed with the surprising quickness with which form of intellectual or psychic electricity has gone 

their brains 0 P erat , e even ordinary conversation, down the grotesque phrenological vagaries of GaU as 
Speaking ,n alien languages, they find comparatively we H as SO me of the pseudo-scientific theories S that 

very unusual man, Mesmer. We all possess what is 

Magnetism is nothing more than earnestness and sin¬ 
cerity, coupled with insight, sympathy, patience and tact, 
inese essentials cannot be bought and cannot be taught. 
o£ b t5e a heart’ r “ by nature ’’ they are dyed with ‘ the red ripe 
But Dr. Quackenbos is a physician and a philosopher. 
Had he been a lexicographer he would have found the 
term magnetism far more inclusive. He would at least 
have admitted the phenomenon which we have 

little difficulty in expressing themselves with rapidity 
and fluency. Very few great singers ever acquire a 
similar ease. These pianists are wonderfully well read, 
many being acquainted with the literature of three or 
more tongues in the original. Indeed, it is not unusual 
to find them skipping through several languages during 
ordinary conversation without realizing that they arc 
performing linguistic feats that would put the average 
college graduate to shame. They are familiar with art, 
science, politics, manufactures, even in their most re¬ 
cent developments. “What is your favorite type of 
aeroplane?” asked one some years ago in the kinder¬ 
garten days of cloud navigation. I told him that I had 
made no choice since I had never seen a flying 
machine, despite the fact that I was a native of the coun¬ 
try that gave it birth. He then vouchsafed his opin¬ 
ions and entered into a physical and mechanical discus¬ 
sion of the matter, indicating that he had spent hours 
in getting the whole subject straightened out in his 
mind. This same man, a German, knew whole cantos 
of the Inferno by heart, and could repeat long scenes 
from King Lear with a very creditable English accent. 

The average American “tired business man” who is 
inclined to look upon the touring virtuoso as “only a 
pianist” would be immensely surprised if he were called 
upon to compare his store of “universal” information 
with that of the performer. He would soon see that 
his long confinement close behind the bars of the dol¬ 
lar sign had made him the intellectual inferior of the 
musician he almost ignores. But it is hardly fair to 
compare these famous interpreters with the average 
"tired business man.” They are the Cecil Rhodes, the 
Thomas Edisons, the Maurice Maeterlincks of their 
fields. It is easy enough *o find musicians of smaller 
life opportunities basking in their ignorance and con¬ 

While the virtuoso may be described as intellectual 
in the broader sense of the term, he usually has a great 
fear of becoming academic. He aspires to be artistic 

known as magnetism. Some have it in an unusual de¬ 
gree, as did Edwin Booth, Franz Liszt, Phillips Brooks 
and Bismarck. It was surely neither the art nor the 
ability of Daniel Webster that made his audiences ac¬ 
cept some of his fatuous platitudes as great utterances, 
was ‘he histrionic talent alone of Richard Mans- 

.w , , , • . . . A V o. ren, ink-, pencils, blue pencil, paper, r-r 


A LITTLE thought and care expended an th 
of having everything close at hand and coL 
will save a teacher much annoyance and lo s ,” ( T? 
and energy, and enable him during each lessor,, 
centrate his attention entirely where it belones ■ 
on the pupil’s lesson. This sentence sounds • 
like a truism that it never would have been 
but for the fact that there are teachers, evei 
of considerable eminence, who never •seem t In. 
learned to keep their equipment in handy and araM 
shape, and waste much of the valuable time of, 
lesson-hour in collecting themselves, so to sneak 
remember one of the teachers in the Leipzig conseJ 
tory who never seemed to be able to provide himrf 
with a pencil, but was always borrowing from ' 
pupils, and, incidentally, never known to return o 
It was a standing joke among those in his classes, 
as he was not only a faithful teacher, but a man« 
fine character and much beloved by all who knew tk 
it was looked upon as an amiable weakness, and new 
really did much harm. However, had he been in it 
slightest degree unpopular, it would have given oppor¬ 
tunity to hold him up to ridicule in a most unplcas® 
way. A friend of mine tells me of one of his or 
former teachers, who was habitually given to hunti 
all over his house for tuning-forks, pencils and 
forth, during the course of a lesson. 


At the present day, successful business men ares 
customed to give careful thought to the arranges® 
of their desks and other equipment, to avoid loss of 
time. Although a studio can hardly be properly 
nished with the bare simplicity of a business office, a 
it is necessary to have a few beautiful things to 
a proper “atmosphere,” still we may take a hint from 
business men’s methods, with advantage. Some 
ing when work is not too pressing, make a list of il 
the things which are necessary during the 
your usual teaching day, see that everything is pm- 
vided for, and decide on a suitable place for each am 
every thing. Having once inaugurated a system, Stic, 
to it until it becomes a habit. This list will of cook 
vary greatly with different teachers, but I give <W 
that occurs to me as being suitable for average ca» 
We have, then, to provide for the following: 


1. A place for the pupil to lay off his or her wtap 

2. A place for the pupil to lay down his books o' 
sheet-music, without danger of their getting mixed will 
those belonging to others. 

3. Suitable arrangement of curtains and shades fw 
proper light in the day-time. 

4. Suitable placing of artificial lights in the evcitn.C 

5. Pen, ink, pencils, blue pencil, paper, music-pap* 

niter of this article Rive 
hose who would ro abroad. 

_cases of pupils who have been 

thplr pntirp stav nhrond mierht hn\r#» h_ 


hire seen personally^ 

____ _results in some 

American studios and conservatories than have been heard in 
similar Institutions abroad. Several American teachers have 
already attracted pupils from the other side, and It is by no 
mans unusual to find pupils cominR back to tlielr American 
tethers after disappointing experiences In European music 
eea res. We advocate foreign travel and foreign residence to 

“■? broadeninR effect of a cosmopolitan life. Neverthe- 

“i convinced that in our best music centres there 

— -j- 1 *— —*-nated with 

lofty mush each Rreat 

l musical hei our friends 

write inqui e desire to 

present all le fairness, 

■i are gla ble article 

on this si 

‘Why g “Are not 

irteache y. But it 

lakes mon It takes 

atmosp ook about 

her illustr eschetizky 

obvious theatrical contraption as Prince Karl. Both 
Webster, with his fathomless eyes and his ponderous 
voice, and Mansfield with his compelling personality 
were exceptional examples of magnetism. 

(This article will be continued in The Etude for 
next month when the pianist’s greatest asset “magnet¬ 
ism” will be considered.) 



ceipts, account-book or card-system, cabinet, bloft 8, 
stamps, and any other articles of stationery that 
be needed. 

6. Music cabinet containing music for the 
own use, properly sorted according to whatever s) 
he finds most convenient. 

7. Music cabinet containing teaching P' ecc * 31 
struction books for pupils, also properly sorted- 

8. Bookshelves containing musical dictiona 
and other works of reference. 

9. A stand containing copies of current 
which are found helpful in one’s work. 

10. A shelf or stand upon which to lay 
porarily when one is too pressed for t' me 

which they group them- , i,,ia V""* ,'leisure h 

in reading music our aim must be to ? Way ln the wrong p,ace ’ and at lhe .f This is® 
it may be put in order without trouble, t j ^ 
own idea, and I have found it very helper . 
pen to have on hand borrowed music whi ’ 

When we read a book, we do not consciously read 
the letters separately and afterwards form them into 
words; we seem to see at a glance not merely the Wh ™. 0ne 1S ,, t0 ° preSSe V°riI puttiu? * 

words, but the sentences into which they group them- Pr ° perly ' - Th,s guards aga,nst l 1Uf J1 JLre he* 
selves. Just so in reading music our aim must be to 
gain the power not only of knowing what the notes 
are, but of seeing and understanding at once the 
chords, which are the words of music and the phrases 
and periods, which are the sentences of music. 

Our object should be to study these phrases -- 

tences, and then to see how they are grot 
in various ways; one phrase answering to and bal¬ 
ancing another, and all combining to make one beauti¬ 
ful whole, in accordance with the strict rules that gov¬ 
ern musical “form.” Only when we have .studied 
in this way shall we be at all able to understand and 
appreciate for ourselves the beautiful thoughts of the 
great composers, or worthily interpret them to others 

I'.iiumg iexum, uiai sues _ ol 0 

I cannot close this article without spea 
see how they are grouped together b “1 e ‘hing which stands most in the way ° m 
proper order in a room—the tendency o* ^ 
to accumulate “truck.” We need c0 . u . rag * . f5S hr** 

• . -‘Have n ° r ' ! 

pressed in the words of William Morns. ^ 

in a room except what you know to be us 
to be beautiful.” 

I 1 board even the poorest student should allow as much 
beeojio as five dollars for each trip, or else be prepared for 
considerable embarrassment The railroad fare after 
Eriramust comess 10 i>e sumi-wiiai pii-juuiccu in uie matter landing is, of course, problematical; but that steamer 
of remaining ln this country to complete one’s musical educa- , , . , , , . , , .. 

We believe emphatic-ally in the ability of our .nmenoan route should be chosen which will land the student well 
ire, and we have often heard far be tter results> some w ithin the twenty-five dollar distance from his chosen 
destination. Board may be secured in the student 
quarters of almost any European city for the equivalent 
of thirty dollars per month. Laundry is done well and 
reasonably by peasant women, and dry cleaning is 
ridiculously cheap. Fifty cents is a fair average entrance 
price (with seat) to the usual solo concert. Orchestra 
concerts are frequently given at an absurdly low ad¬ 
mission rate. Opera prices vary. A dollar will procure 
a seat for Grand Opera in almost any city, and I have 
known Stehplatz, or standing-room, to be bought for the 
fourth gallery of the Vienna Opera at the overwhelming 
price of twenty-five cents! Lessons, of course, depend 
in price entirely upon the teacher. Ten, fifteen and 
twenty dollars per hour are the prices of some of the 
net mustr esclietizky best - These have ’ often ' preparatory teachers whose 

speaks of that “spirit of the past without which no dirges are much less, and with whom preparation les- 

modrm artist can lay claim to catholicity of thought s ° ns be to great advantage, for a while, 

and feeling.” To get that we must go to the old world- alternately, to the lesson with the master, 
at least at present. We Americans are getting a past 
just as fast as we can, but we need a little ' ~ 

Koven has said: “The American people is 
American nation is yet to be.” When that evolves, 
and with it our national music which every loyal Ameri- 
~»i confidently expects, we shall have atmosphere to 
am! Until then, we must go ; 
nhat about the money part? 

Father,” said a small boy, “what are the circum¬ 
stances that alter cases?” 

Financial circumstances, my son,” came the answer., uiy bun, 

Kut after all, foreign study is not 


I should like to consider the student’s readiness for 
_ venture in three aspects: Physical; Mental: Musical. 
It is not thoughtlessly that I put the Physical first. 
To study with a man of real genius is a physical, mental 
and, in times of storm, a moral strain! The master’s 
technique is not always the most difficult part of him. 
To meet the stress of suspense and of temperamental fear 
which is worse than any physical shrinking, one needs a 

so expensive. 

ictual outlay depends, of course, on the length of one’s 
’ a ; T ’ M I will speak of that before I mention dollars 
ln .. “ n ‘ s - I consider three years the shortest term in 
1. ™ e P U P>1 can possibly prepare for concert work. 
15 re ‘ ers the pupil in the ideal state of readiness for 
'"aster, described later in this article. Two years may 

The good reserve force of healthful poise. The master keys 

each pupil to his highest pitch and the tragedy of him 
who snaps under the strain is by no means a rare one. 
It is here that the question of money comes in again 
strongly. The pupil—and there are many such—unable 
to afford heat and the necessary food runs a serious 
risk of not only physical, but also complete mental 

i f ’ vlva '“ II,JCU in mis article, i wo years. i t « 

* ° f advantage to one whose only ambition is to break-down. But even with money he who ..‘tempts t 
„ ach \ 0ne year, I consider worse than useless. Do scale the heights should be phys.cally stronR. 

‘misunderstand me here. The first year under any In the second, the mental a spert, I shoul^^e to point 
w teachcc, even a local one, is an upheaval; the first out a distinction between two pka s The mind in 
■ tar under a man of genius is an earthouake. The music,” which I desire for a pupil « a \astly diflcrcnt 

L p c£ d 4 S b.«r 0 u ” 

« P »«, whi,. without b,l 


?-ise it"fe”that abili^o 

' deaS UPS «’ — are still without fo^ance, but — ^ SanfcaWc 

■o lJL° ry!s curr ent in Vienna of a woman who went complishment; far more » ‘caVdash'boldly 

y jr-f" g ,--r °" ,y *Tvis 

from,? 6 ? err Professor looked at her-quizzically intenm! It is the pmrik* of 

™ beneath bushv white hrmv B 

h bushy white brows. 

they are talking about, and I wish for my ideal pupil 

* ^ i i Ml*.. nrhjtt hr hlfJMtW QOOUt 

Tor before he offers himself to the master 

- - _ - 

W pics .* ra a dealer in mountains. Your order is for "us'consider a mental aspect not ger- 

an he^™ *? I** money question: decent passage over mane . to foreign g land * hT should have general 

? ips of the^c^d r fty d °T lar - ° n S T ral ° f thC Smaller culture ft° prevent that mental indigestion consequent 


great deal more courage than money, and yet even more 
money than common sense. Each girl had a letter of 
credit for the equivalent of six hundred dollars; that 
was to last her for nine months, from September until 
June, and then land her safely in New York. Not daz¬ 
zling wealth—no. But with judgment the thing could 
have been done. There is no guessing to what extent 
the families of those two girls had denied themselves 
to supply this opportunity. And shortly after Christ¬ 
mas, before having reached even a first lesson with the 
master himself, they found themselves with just enough 
money left to get back to New York. Besides musical 
thinking, common-sense thinking is essential to the 

I now come to the third aspect of my ideal student’s 
advancement preparatory to foreign study—the musical. 
Of this I wish to make two subdivisions which, for 
convenience, I shall call Understanding and Technique, 

By "Understanding” I mean not at all the same thing 
as the “mind in music” mentioned above. I refer to a 
comprehension of musical history with its consequent 
grasp of various musical styles, productive of that sine 
qua non, “good taste.” The pupil who will play to the 
preparatory teacher as a sample of his skill “Jesus, 
Savior, Pilot Me,” with variations, should—well she 
should have remained at home a little longer. This is 
not an imaginary case. Another pupil played the mid¬ 
dle melody of Chopin’s Funeral March, very smoothly 
and distinctly, but in two-step time! 

In preparing himself for advanced work in touch, the 
pupil should have a good hand position. Different so- 
called “schools” advocate different methods, but nearly 
all agree that the fingers should be well curved, the 
knuckles sufficiently curved to permit easy passage of 
the thumb beneath them, and the wrist somewhat lower 
than the knuckles and thoroughly relaxed. N’ext he 
should have a working —not tinkering—knowledge of 
the scales and chords; this does not mean knowing 
enough to worry out the right note after the wrong 
one has been struck, but knowing before taking the false 
one. He should be able to play with evenness, exercises 
of equal difficulty with the Czerny Studies, Opus 299. 
Evenness means here equality of tone pressure and 
equality of spacing between notes, which implies an 
ability to think into the weak fingers, conforming thcii 
rate and dynamic pressure to that of the stronger ones. 
(The perfection of such evenness is art indeed, and to be 
expected of none but the finished artist; but the achieve¬ 
ment of it at a slow tempo, hy conscious effort, will be 
of infinitely greater value in the master’s eyes than the 
ability to splash through more advanced studies—for 
instance, the Czerny Opus 740. Then comes rhythm. 
A good many pupils arc more fascinated with learning 
how to spell it than how to feel itl I place it delib¬ 
erately under the heading "technique” as implying a 
thing to be mechanically worked out. Woe unto the 
youth who can "beat good time,” and feels satisfied 
with that! A sense of rhythm no more includes a work¬ 
ing mastery of rhythmic divisions than a language tal¬ 
ent includes full possession of French verbs. Nine pu¬ 
pils out of ten, until forced not merely to count, but to 
realise their rests, will “come in loo soon” on such 
chords as are set down suddenly, with intervening rests, 
after a prolonged scries of runs. After rhythm, 1 
would mention the need of hearing dearly, interdepend¬ 
ent musical figures. Study of the voices in Bach’s 
Two and Three Part Inventions will help one here. It 
is well indeed to have mastered these lie fore being 
thrust upon the tender mercies of the well-tempered 
Gavichord—which is a very mV-tcmpered mentor to 
the pupil found unprepared! Last—but assuredly not 
least—under technique comes the pedal. A new pupil 
was playing for me Chopin’s Berceuse. 1 was delighted 
with her interpretation, her advanced technique and her 
rhythm. She pedalled quite clearly, for her car was 
good, but with no real skill. I suggested a change—a 
quicker lifting of her foot at the indicating star. 
“What star?” she asked, and when I explained, “Well, 
do you know, T have often wondered what that thing 
was for!” (Her previous teacher, finding her “ad¬ 
vanced,” probably thought no more of explaining that 
star than a high school teacher of telling her pupils how 
to spell “cat.”) Another pupil, who had studied with 
an under-teacher at one of our very well-known con¬ 
servatories, said she had never !>cen told to use the 
left pedal and had always thought it was “just sort of 
put there!” So my ideal pupil should have a definite 
knowledge of clean pedalling, so that artistic effect may 
be the master’s sole concern. 





No one can have followed the pupil to this point, ob¬ 
serving the difficulties in his path, without realizing 
that he is talented, merely, and not the happy (?) 
owner of genius. Genius makes its own rules and fol¬ 
lows its own pathway, and in God’s own time arrives at 
its goal. 

The talented pupil, then, is “ready.” He has the 
physique, the mental development and the technique 
necessary. It is time to go. The question then arises, 
“To whom?” To whom indeed! The number of his 
answers will equal the number of musical tenets of his 
informers. How is the pupil to decide? The only 
way seems to be the getting a consensus of opinion 
through asking all whose musical advice he values, then 
reading two or three musical journals, giving the “rub¬ 
ber” to the agreeing two out of three, and then hear¬ 
ing, if possible, a pupil or two of the master having 
received the greatest number of endorsements. This 
is not so difficult as it sounds, for the wide-awake pupil, 
with his ears open, can get a very good idea as to what 
. master the best artists of the day represent; more 
difficult is the task to the student who lives in a small 
town, but even then he can get hold of musical journals. 

I do not mean to say that everything he “sees in the 
newspapers” will be gospel; but the balance of power, 
even in musical advertisements, usually leans toward 
the best. 

After deciding upon the name of his master-to-be 
the pupil should write and inquire, briefly, his prices 
and requirements. These he should bear well in mind 
during his ensuing practice before the time of his de¬ 
parture. (Of course, if he be so fortunate as to have 
a teacher at home who has studied with a foreign 
master, much of this difficulty is obviated.) He must 
have a definite idea of his undertaking; he must not 
consider art a grab-bag into which he may thrust his 
hand blindly expecting to pull out a prize. 

It is absolutely necessary to give the chosen master 
a fair trial. Although the greatest masters disclaim a 
“method” (while their preparatory teachers write many 
volumes expounding the same!) every person of dis¬ 
tinction has a manner of procedure. It takes time to 
acquire understanding of this. Some people seem to 
consider various methods merely picture post-cards to 
be collected. One good lady told me not long ago 
quite seriously that her son had " gone through Europe 
with a note-book, getting prices and methods from all 
the masters!” Everyone is familiar with the person 
who goes abroad for the summer months only and re¬ 
turns to print a prospectus (large photograph on front 
page) made weighty with the names of his teachers 
in Paris, Vienna, Berlin, Leipzig, etc., ad libitum and 
ad nauseam. 

It would be well indeed for the pupil to realize that 
art is not a getting but a growing, that he might be 
prepared for the slowness of it—as well as the grow¬ 
ing-pains ! 

To put it all in a nut-shell; A talented pupil, in a 
normal state of health, with a mind already awakened 
by a fair amount of culture, and possessed of a thorough 
technical knowledge up to the point described, should, 
through a consensus of the best opinions at his com¬ 
mand, decide upon a master, determine to give him a 
fair trial—then pack his trunk, buy his ticket and trust 
in God and hard work. 


A Too Much Neglected Instrument 

[Editor's Note. —Mr. Landon is right iu stating that the 
reed organ is a much neglected instrument, despite the fact 
that there are thousands and thousands of them in Ameri¬ 
can homes. The possibilities of the instrument are really 
far greater than one might suppose at first. We refer of 
course to the really good reed organs and not the imposi¬ 
tions gotten up to sell. In Germany many of the leading 
publishers put out music especially arranged for the reed 
organ and there is a great demand for this music even in 
homes where' there are fine pianos. The Germans like the 
reed organ tone and many a family group has a delightful 
time making combinations of tone color through the use 
of a violin, a piano and a reed organ. The reed quality 
lends itself to the imitation of several of the instruments 
of the orchestra. One of the foremost teachers of Phila¬ 
delphia has a set of specially voiced reed organs con¬ 
structed for use in his orchestral classes. One organ re¬ 
sembles the bassoon, another the oboe, etc., etc. A pupil 
placed at each organ with the orchestral part of the in¬ 
strument to be represented before him. The part might de¬ 
mand transposition at sight, as in the case of some of 
the bass instruments. This teacher’s idea is that since the 
pupils who desire to study orchestration do not care to 
master every instrument of the orchestra, and since they 
already possess a working knowledge of the keyboard, much 
practical help comes through the use of these organs. 
Similar effects may be achieved through the use of the 
different stops on a good reed organ. It should be re¬ 
membered that fine reed organs are often used in connec¬ 
tion with high-elass theatre orchestras and sometimes with 
Symphony orchestras. Anton Seidl frequently employed one 
and Liszt advocated it very highly. Mr. I.andoh is an 
authority upon this subject and his method for the reed 
-- - st , . 

e of the n 

t popular books of its kind.] 


Observe the key signature before commencing to play. 

Follow accurately all slurs, staccato marks, expression 
marks, and all and sundry signs included with the notes, 
intended to assist the performer in making the music 
sound as the composer intended it to sound. 

Use the sustaining pedal with discretion. It becomes 
an unmitigated nuisance when wrongly employed. 

Maintain a certain amount of technical practice every 
day, whether you are taking lessons or not. 

Give the end of a phrase as much attention as the 

Adjust the piano stool to the right height every time 
you play. 

Play music that people like to hear. 

Playing is a selfish amusement unless it is enjoyed by 
those who listen. Their musical taste can be considered 
without loss of dignity, even when it Involves playing 
a little of the popular music of the day. 

Play often for the sick and infirm. They are made 
happy by a little music, which can be provided for 
them without difficulty by all who are willing to make 
a small sacrifice of time. 

It is not the fault of the reed organ that much of the 
playing heard upon it is unmubical. The instrument 
has a technic of its own, and one as distinct as has 
the piano; it is not a piano, and it is not a pipe 
organ, and music for these two instruments rarely 
sounds well on the reed organ. Therefore, use real 
reed organ music—music that is arranged to give a 
light and rhythmic accompaniment. 

The ordinary reed organ player has a stick-to-the- 
keys touch, and no vivacity and independent move¬ 
ment of hands, especially of the left hand. The latter 
generally crawls up from its low bass note at beat 
“One” to the chord keys further up for the other beats. 
This style prohibits anything like rhythmic effect and 
makes the accompaniment as loud as the melody, thus 
obscuring instead of supporting the melody. 


The piano studio is not completely equipped unless 
there is a good reed organ in it. A “good” reed organ 
has not less than three sets of reeds in the treble 
part and three or four sets in the bass. More sets cost 
but little extra and add greatly to the usefulness and 
beauty of effects. There is an extensive list of standard 
and classic music arranged for the “Harmonium” reed 
organ and piano in the publications of Peters, Litolff 
and Augener. These furnish delightful music for pupil 
recitals, and for teaching the pupil a true legato touch. 

Such pieces as Kamcnnoi-Ostrow and Melody in F, 
by Rubinstein; The Two Angels, by Blumentlial; La 
Cascade, by Pauer; Last Hope, by Gottschalk. and any 
piece with a lyrical melody, and especially if it has 
arabesques and runs over the melody, as in the pieces 
named, is good, but the organ part sometimes requires 
some condensing of the wide arpeggios into the span 
of an octave, and changes or lengthening in note values 
for securing a legato; a little practice will soon set this 
right. Pieces with a pleasing melody, such as Love’s 
Dream After the Ball, if played slowly and the piano 
part given additional octave arpeggios or harp chords is 
also good. Songs can be easily elaborated extempore 
for both piano and the reed organ with a little prac¬ 
tice, and so one may get novelties of value. 

The reed organ tone blends especially well with the 
piano, and it opens a field of great value for the 
progressive teacher’s class in the refinement of taste and 
m acquainting his pupils with a phase of musical art 
not otherwise presentable to the student. A good 
reed organ with a tasteful management of its stops is 
not an impossible substitute for the ’cello in string 
quartet work, and makes a trio or quartet possible 
where there is no ’cello available, a too common lack 
in most towns. 

2-foot stops for the left hand accompani ment • 
delightful effects, especially when the melody ! ^ 
the second.and third time. The charm comes f r ?'T' 
actual tones being above the melody, and as th * “ 
are always voiced to a delicate softness, the mdV 
always clearly heard. By using nearly all th*. 
the 8- and 4-foot tone, playing the accompanS 
m the treble over a melody one or two ® 
lower than written, a pleasing trombone solo e j“ 
can be produced, provided the accompaniment ^ 
are very staccato, as much so as will gi ve a 
tone. In marches and waltzes, the low bass tVnf" 
beat “One” should not he held too long, only fo! 
enough to give out its foundational pitch, and r 
until it sounds like a groan of distress. All accon™': 
ments should be of a crisp and decidedly short st^ 
“Piano playing” at the organ is anything to 
musical, and pianists are often invited to play„ 
Sunday-school and mid-week church meetings to 
the result is rarely satisfactory. First, there is a'tedt 
nic of the feet in blowing to control the expression 
but at first to give a steady and even tone, later bl«. 
ing fast for power, and evenly slowly for soft effects 
and always with a full length stroke of the feet, neva 
in short and jerky treads. The knee swell is for 
“climaxing” the phrases, and for loud effects gener¬ 
ally. The other knee reach is to bring on all the 
stops for sudden fortissimo effects, which must bt 
done between chords silently. 


A sudden opening of the swell gives a disagreeable 
cat-a-wauling effect; therefore if a sforsanio i> 
wanted, open the swell between chords during the 
brief instant of silence when passing from one chord to 
the next. The “Forte” stops should never be used ai 
they prevent either a crescendo or diminuendo. 

Very loud playing should be reserved for rare cli¬ 
maxes, for the full power of the reed organ is iw 
agreeable except for a climax. The stops used for 
accompaniment should be softer and of a different 
tone coldr than those for the melody, and as sail 
above, the accompaniment should be staccato; but ia 
music where each part is melodic the hands both play 
legato and the stops should be of similar power ano 
lone quality. 

If families who love fine music knew the delight¬ 
ful effects obtainable from the reed organ it would 
find a place of honor in many homes. If teachers ot 
the piano would conquer the art possibilities of the 
reed organ, which can be done with but little P w ' 
tice, they could add largely to their incomes in teach¬ 
ing this instrument, for it is in nearly all churches 
and in many homes, often being owned by families 
that enjoy far better music than they usually P* 
from the instrument, because of the inefficient teac 
ing they pay for. The art playing and teaching o' 
the reed organ is a much neglected field. 


With a reed organ having one or two 2-foot tones in 
the lower half of the keyboard, which can he used both 
in melody and accompaniment work, there are delight¬ 
ful possibilities in tone color through a tasteful com¬ 
bination of the stops. The wavy tone of the For 
Celeste or Vox Jubilante for the right hand, and the 


To the Editor of The Etude. 

Dear Sir: —My profession is that of a school teacher. I 
but I also act as organic of the church at this » | 

place, besides teaching a few pupils '. music. P**. i 
years I have paid much attention to muscular m °'f. ^ 
in penmanship, as advocated by Palmer, who he 1 
that writing should be executed with the f°re-ar» n - 
not with the hand alone. The fore-arm from the a 
is placed on the table and the large muscle it res s ^ 
acts as a rotatory base. The little 
pen (held of course between the thumb an ^ 
finger) make the same movement. It is a s . 
fact that the position of the hand in muscular 
is exactly the same as in piano playing. w b2t 

Of course the tips of the fingers arc s .g,. 
spread out in playing the piano, but in I’ 0 ** 1 ? e( j a ttto 
manship and pianism—the hand should be arc ^ ^ 
knuckles and lean towards the thumb, enoug^ 
a coin laid upon the back of the hand wi p^. 
off sideways in the direction of the little "tig ' let 
tically all beginners in penmanship, piano or 
the hand fall toward the little finger. S° m ^ [ 
are quicker than others. Right at the pre ^ |, t m®' 
have two pupil sisters; the older one has c J one Ja# 
cular movement fairly well, while the y oU j%r ffg | fore 
as yet considerable trouble in getting v° forme- 
arm movement when writing in school- ^ cof 
little girl almost unconsciously placed llC . al j c ti :t 
rectly over the keys; the latter needs— w 
patience!—O. M. Sankey. 

Mozart from a French Standpoint 


(Specially translated for The Etude by V. J. Hill) 

Among the old masters of music, some two or three 
perhaps move us more profoundly than Mozart because 
they have expressed in the richest and most ardent 
language a vast world of thought and emotion. But 
no one, not Beethoven nor even Bach himself, pos¬ 
sessed more abundant resources in harmony or musical 
beauty more bountiful and pure. Mozart created music 
as a bird sings or as a flower gives out its perfume; 
music fragile and charming, always like himself, and 
yet each time new, a kind of infinite variation upon a 
secret theme whose manifold possibilities are never 
exhausted. Does this charm consist of melancholy lan¬ 
guor? Must we look under his delicate grace for a 
hidden passion? Is it not simply the never-failing 
melody of a voice naively enchanted with its own 
beauty? One cannot truly say. But certainly, no music 
is more sweetly imperious to awaken in him who lis¬ 
tens and to quicken for a moment distant images and 
confused recollections of things half forgotten; and 
none is so sensitive in clothing itself, according to the 
day and the hour, with the proper color of our emo¬ 

In the old popular tables we often find the thread 
of the narrative woven round some strange charming 
being whose life is almost like that of other men ex¬ 
cept that it possesses a kind of grace, a mysterious 
gift, a secret power. And then one day, when his hour 
comes, he is suddenly transfigured, and he is found to 
lie a fairy spirit condemned to live for a time among 
men. One receives almost a similar impression in 
reading the life of Mozart. Especially is this so in 
considering, on the one hand, his nature as a man— 
his physical and moral physiognomy, both so attractive 
—and on the other hand, the magnetic gift of musical 
heauty and invention which dwelt in him like another 
strange and superior nature. He appeared thus to 
many who met him. not only to auditors who saw him 
only at his instrument, but to his intimates—a rare 
thing—and to his father more than anyone else. “Lit¬ 
tle Wolfgang,” said M. de Wyzewa, “was little more 
than four years of age when his father recognized be¬ 
yond any possible doubt that the existence of such a 
child in his family was no less than a miracle.” 


Mozart’s precocity is too well known to take up our 
time. Several anecdotes concerning his biography 
demonstrate his talent as a performer and his wonder- 
. u ■’ correct ear. More interesting to us, since we see 
! n 11 th e miraculous alertness of his creative faculties, 
is that which shows us th^- little Wolfgang at four 
{T ar ? °I age, scrawling a concerto for harpsichord, and 
ls father weeping with wondef and joy at this sud- 
en revelation of the genius of his son. The story 
is told with charming familiarity by Andreas Schacht- 
"jj an °ld friend of the Mozart family, in a letter 
in lTo SCd to Marianna Mozart, a sister of the artist, 
'92. One might believe that there is a little com- 
Piacent exaggeration on the part of Schachtner, due to 
eakening of his memory after so many years. But 
O' for the following year, Leopold Mozart was care- 
to preserve the copy of the first works of his son. 
an ? re are several minuets, an allegro in B flat major. 
U Soon after some sonatas for the piano and vio- 
. and these first attempts lead us to the symphonies 
men by Mozart at the age of eight years. All these 
!i«t S are ! ruly ^' s beyond question of fraud._ The 
win P I°° f lies in t,le > r fresh and luminous style, in the 
m ge< 8 r ace which already appears in them, which we 
zart ' n va ' n > n the compositions of Leopold Mo- 
(])■ '. there not in this precocity of invention, in 
art ' nna | e sense °I music and this divination of an 
so difficult and complex, something truly P ro " 

digious which we must acknowledge, though we can in 
no way penetrate the mystery? 

Several instances are recorded of the impression pro¬ 
duced on his contemporaries by the almost disquieting 
charm which emanated from Mozart. When, at the 
age of six, for instance, Mozart and his sister were 
presented at the Court of Austria, the Emperor Fran¬ 
cis, who spent entire hours with him at the harpsi¬ 
chord, and surnamed him the little master-sorcerer— 


From a Contemporary Drawing by Rosio. 

leinen Hexenmeister.” Later when lie produced his 
st dramatic work at Vienna, the astounded audience 
d to each other, "Questo e «n portento;” lie is a 
odigy! And the Italian word is stronger than the 
ench word; tin portento, that is to say, something 
normal, supernatural, almost monstrous. Even one 
his adversaries-for the work was given in spite of 
ong opposition-was conquered by the novelty of the 
undant, harmonious music, and exclaimed. Tins 
ild is the greatest man of his time. At Naples, in 
concert given at the Conservatoire dc la / '• <’ - 

ozart in his gala attire, with his powdered wig, the 
blic could not believe the simple and natural reality 
his playing. Only witchcraft could explain the en- 
anting Melodies which came from his fingers; and 
ozart was obliged to remove a ring which he wore 
his left hand, to which the superstitious Neapolitans 
ributed the magic virtue that they refused to the 
„e mastery of the composer and performer. 

the composer inspired. 

Mozart’s own experience docs not permit us to doubt 
at he like all great artists, knew the price of suc- 
fs But with him, conscious effort, voluntary appli¬ 

cation and alertness of mind seemed rather to depend 
on the conditions of the work of art than upon his own 
development. If he assimilated all the technic of his 
time, if he studied with ardent sympathy the works 
of his great predecessors, Bach, Handel, Haydn, the 
rapidity with which he composed is further proof that 
there was a spontaneity that was not acquired, remote 
from himself, in his musical creations. At Prague, 
while he wrote the richest pages of Don Juan, he 
played at ninepins in the garden of his friend Dussek. 
Seated before a table, he stood up and rolled the ball 
in his turn, then resumed his work amid the laughter 
and exclamations of his companions. It was while 
playing a game of billiards that he composed the 
famous quintet in The Magic Flute. Most of his great¬ 
est works were written as if dictated by an inner voice. 
"He wrote his scores,” said his wife, “as one writes a 

“It is not I who think,” said Lamartine upon one 
occasion; “it is my ideas that think for me.” This is 
what we call inspiration. In the most exact sense of 
the term, no one was ever inspired more than Mozart. 
In the last years of his short life, worn out by work 
and care, reduced almost to penury, suffering from 
consumption and a nervous malady, and haunted by 
dark presentiments, lie wrote works which are marvels 
of brilliancy and exquisite grace. Even if they are 
sometimes mingled with a somewhat serious and mel¬ 
ancholy emotion, the same smile pervades them, and it 
is impossible to discover in the perfection of his gen¬ 
ius, in that penetrating sweetness of premature au¬ 
tumn, the expression of actual grief. 

After conceiving Mozart as a musician, it is inter¬ 
esting in contrast to outline a mental picture of him 
as a man. He was small and thin, but his fine and 
regular features had a classic elegance which harmon¬ 
ized with the paleness of his face and the mobility of 
his expression. With an extreme vivacity of gesture 
and movement, there was in his easy grace something 
nervous and a little febrile, which struck one, and at¬ 
tracted attention. His hands especially were never in¬ 
active. Whether on a table, a window-pane, or on his 
knees, they constantly tapped chords or ran notes 
lightly over an imaginary keyboard. An excellent 
dancer, in the minuet he was proud of being one of 
the best pupils of the famous Vestris. In ballets and 
pantomime he willingly took the role of Arlequin. 
which suited him perfectly. 

The same vivacity which existed in his movements 
was reflected in his mind. His letters prove that he 
had gaiety and a fanciful imagination which he re¬ 
tailed even during the most painful circumstances of 
his life. We must add to these characteristics a gen¬ 
erosity of heart of which he was often the dupe, and 
an utter disregard of the practical necessities and small 
miseries of life. One winter day one of his friends 
was surprised to find him waltzing alxmt the room 
with his wife to keep warm, there being no tire in the 
hearth. How different from the life of Haydn, well- 
regulated, well-ordered, and so sagely lived! 


In his affections Mozart had the same impression¬ 
able nature, the .same strange sensitiveness. As a 
child, he had for his parents and for his sister Mari¬ 
anne a cajoling and passionate tenderness which he ex¬ 
pressed in words of unusual fantasy, full of drollery 
and humor. "After God,” he declared, “comes Papa.” 
And in a letter from his father, we read; “W here have 
those beautiful days gone when in the evening before 
going to bed you sat upon my knee and sang to me a 
little song? You always kissed me on the tip of my 
nose, saying that when I was old you would keep me 
near you, carefully locked in a box under a glolic to 
keep off the dust.” 

As for his wife, until the very last, in happy or un¬ 
fortunate days, he had for her a devotion, a never- 
failing tenderness, an attentive solicitude, which one 
seldom finds in an artist pre-occupied with his work 
and thoughts. During a long illness of Constance Mo 
zart, every morning before she was awake he would 
go for a walk; but never without leaving a little note 
in which she might read some such message as. “Good 
morning, my dear wife. Be careful you do not take 
cold. Don’t get up too quickly, and don't pet angry 
at the servant.” And—which was more heroic if su¬ 
perfluous—“Wait until I come home, and tell me your 
domestic troubles.’’ 



Such was the great and kind Mozart. Difficult it is 
to find the point of contact between his inspiration and 
his life; to understand that happy free, inspiration 
which nothing ever seemed to trammel; the facile soar¬ 
ing of that agitated life, scattered, light and feverish, 
full of anxieties, which closed so early without having 
attained one moment of perfect equilibrium, nor any 
place of repose. 


In the collections of . discourses by Eckermann, 
Goethe speaks more than once of Mozart. After more 
than sixty years he had retained his wonderful mem¬ 
ory, a singularly clear and precise image of the strange 
little musician. “I saw him,” he says, “when he was 
only a child of seven; I myself was not more than 
fourteen, but I still recall tin boy with his curly hair 
and sword.” His brief comments on the genius of Mo¬ 
zart are o: a penetrating intuition and of great ac¬ 
curacy beneath their apparent fantasy. “I cannot help 
thinking, he said, “that the demons, to tease and jeer 
at aggravated humanity, cause to appear from time to 
time figures so winning that everyone tries to imitate 
them, and yet so great that no one can ever attain 
them. In music, the inaccessible being they have cre¬ 
ated is Mozart.” And still further: “Musical talent is 
naturally the most prococious, because music is some¬ 
thing entirely innate, part of one’s self, which has no 
need of outside aid, nor of experience drawn from life. 
But a phenomenon like Mozart remains forever an in¬ 
explicable exception. How could Divinity perform 
miracles if it did not sometimes produce these extra¬ 
ordinary beings who astound us and whom we cannot 
understand ?” 



One of the most bewildering mental diseases is that 
known as aphasia, a peculiar paralysis of certain por¬ 
tions of the brain, which affects the memory and the 
powers of speech. A recent case was that of a man 
who, after a shock, found that he could not evolve 
any coherent sentences, and that he could not pro¬ 
nounce any words. 

Gradually his memory returned to him, and some¬ 
where from the confused mass of thoughts which 
seemed to be crowding his memory waiting for ex¬ 
pression, came the alphabet. At first he mumbled 
it over and over, and as his health improved he com¬ 
menced to repeat it time and again with better 

Why was the alphabet the first to return? Sim¬ 
ply because the man knew the alphabet better than 
anything else, because that was one of the very first 
things he learned in his student life. 

Educators for a time had a tendency to neglect 
the elementary training of the young. They 
seemed to think that the ideals and models could be 
gained better in later life. Now modern pedagogy 
has turned these ideas upside down. A vast amount 
of scientifically correct fundamental training is now 
being done in all parts of the country. 

Not that “scientifically correct” refers to definitely 
named “system” nor that any one teacher or set of 
teachers has a monopoly, but simply, that basic prin¬ 
ciples are being studied more and more. Each year 
there is a greater number of teachers whose work 
has something of absolutely correct thought. 

As to what these thoughts may be, it is impos¬ 
sible to enumerate them completely in a short ar¬ 
ticle, but a few of the most important may be sug¬ 

First, and easily the most important, pupils are 
being taught more and more that the mental concept 
must invariably precede the actual music making. 
In other words, brains are being developed first, or 
at. least coordinated with fingers and voices, and 
this leads naturally and inevitably to the second 
great thing, concentration. A pupil cannot concen¬ 
trate unless he is taught the correct mental atti¬ 
tude. Every teacher nowadays, at least every 
teacher who is worthy the name, knows that con¬ 
centration is the secret of great success. The fol¬ 
lowing suggestions regarding first lessons are 
worthy of careful attention: 

(1) The kind of technic developed in the first les¬ 
sons will cling through life. It may be modified: it 
may perhaps be mentally discarded, but it will in 
actuality cling, like the alphabet. No one imagines 

that there is only one way to do any given thing, 
and in fact the mind of the pupil must be allowed 
freedom to evolve the various ways, but there are, 
of course, absolutely false ways of doing everything, 
and if these are taught to the very young mind, they 
will never be completely eradicated. 

(2) Memorizing taught at the beginning, scien¬ 
tifically, analytically and absolutely, will very soon 
become a fixed habit of the mind, and any pupil 
so taught will never reach that place where the 
memorizing of a piece is the one great drawback to 
its performance, for he will inevitably have a “sys¬ 
tem,” at his command which will make it just as 
easy for him to memorize the piece as it is to play 
it from the technical or the interpretative standpoint. 

(3) Interpretative ideals should be high, and they 
should be inculcated in the very first lessons and 
fostered persistently throughout the student life. 

Music is a language unto itself—but even pure 
music is monotonous unless it be differentiated as 
to mood and color, unless it be shaded artistically 
as well as phrased according to correct principles. 
It is the task of the good teacher to study these 
questions thoroughly, and by precept and example, 
to instill the correct thought in the young mind. 


n Oil Painting in the Possession of 
H. E. Krehbiel. 

Music is not only a distinctive thing, but it is as 
well an imitative thing, it can be made to imitate 
many other things, and it may, in a sense, be made to 
carry the thought and the atmosphere of every 
other art as well as all the thoughts and emotions of 
the human life. That is rather a big statement, is 
it not? but it is a true one. and therefore, if a stu¬ 
dent is to become a real interpreter of music he 
must needs know life from every standpoint, and 
must study every art as well as nature in her most 
minute and her biggest poses. Literature is neces¬ 
sary, painting and sculpture give definite ideas, the 
drama teaches color, climax, the value of repose and 
of contrast—an endless list of things; all human 
thought and feeling as expressed in romance, poetry 
and history can be depicted in music, and so should 
be studied; oratory provides the key to proper 
projection; and nature, in her various voices, gives 
the divine touch. 

And when the teacher has done all in her power 
everything still remains fo r the pupil to do. Pupils 
do not always realize how much they may help their 
teachers, who have devoted so many hours of care 
and thought to them. Because of the teacher’s long 
years of study and preparation, endured with de¬ 
termination. and often with privation, she is able 
to stand where she does today. Because she was 
willing to pay the pree in time and money to studv 
with great masters, is she able now to give her 
pup'ls the benefit of those famous masters’ advice’ 
By careful, conscientious work a pupil may advance 
a worthy teacher’s reputation, and thus show her 



Taking up the reins again after the vacation .l 
of .da,.,ion i, a hard ,hi„ g do 
life; but perhaps it is most difficult of all a 
engaged in music study. For here not only LJ'T 
cobwebs to be brushed out of the brain, and the Jl 
cleared and made ready for the winter’s work- th^ 
is also the physical side of the question; the fi„»m 
must be made limber once more, and the hands train! 
to their positions among the keys. To meet the Zl 
culty there is always the rested body and mind of tk 
pupil; and best of all, in most cases, a certain 
lessness to get back to work. ■ res, ‘ 

The discerning teacher will accomplish much toward 
restoring lost power while this spirit lasts There 
fore be hopeful at the first lesson after vacation D 0 
not point out to your pupil how much he has lost during 
the summer months, but grasp cheerfully what he ks 
kept. There is a great demand for music during the 
recreation days; and any one who is able to perform 
is always called upon to do so. 

Ask your pupils to give an account of their music 
while they have been absent from you. What music 
have they heard? What have they played for others? 
Which of their selections was appreciated most? It 
may be. from this very fact of playing before people, 
confidence has been gained by the diffident pupils; and 
that in “rubbing up” against other musicians, the rough 
corners of a self-satisfied one have been smoothed away. 
Find out if they have heard anything new they would 
like to learn; in fact, at all times and seasons of the 
year cultivate musical conversation, which is one of the 
most certain means of stimulating musical knowledge. 

After these important preliminaries have been gone 
through, turn your attention to the practical side of 
the question. 

At that first lesson, insist upon your pupil giving up 
fifteen minutes at least to rigid five finger exercises 
and scales, with the different touches; especially with 
the elastic touch (snapping the fingers off the keys). 
This is a sure and certain way of gaining control of the 
weakened muscles once more, and cultivating a full, re¬ 
sponsive quality of tone. Except for these exercises, 
it would be well not to give any actual review work 
at the first lesson. It would indeed be discouraging 
at the outset to begin and learn last winter’s work over 
again. Give your scholar an entirely new and not too 
difficult piece to learn. He will be full of surplus 
energy, which, rightly directed, will spend its force more 
effectually upon this than upon one of his old pieces. 
A new etude, as melodious as can be found, should also 
be produced at this time; and so the work of the year 
will be started with fresh new impulses and ideas, 
giving it an individuality of its own. As the weeks go 
by you should call for # the old pieces, one after the 
other, until the pupil’s entire repertoire has been played, 
and you have found.out what he has retained of all that 
has been given him. 

Some compositions seem entirely unsuited to certain 
players, and yet for technical and other reasons they 
must be placed on the teacher’s list. When these have 
done their work in the way of training the o n ? £r | 
and opening up new schools of musical thought do no 
ask for a further hearing of them. One of the. mo* 
discouraging things for both teacher and pupil 
multiplying of half learned pieces. Of course, i d 
remains with the latter, after all has been explained <j 
him, to practice until the difficulties of technic an 
interpretation have been overcome; but systematic s ^ 
gestion on the teacher’s part will help a great dca • 
may be that only one line, blunderingly ^played- 
the whole composition. If so, mark that, “To be p 
slowly and evenly, twelve times a day. for a wee - ^ 
following suggestions like these the yea J 8 f w .; t h 
will be begun cheerfully and happily; instead o ^ 
the toilsome “working back to things,” about w . 
hears teachers talk. 

Music was an integral part of the F-gyph'^™ f ; n . 
ritual from the most remote times. The » av ^ 
struinent used by the priests was the harp. w 0 f 

probably invented in Egypt. It reached a I 1 I(( |. 

development and beauty which has rarely ‘ ,een . 

The finest harps were taller than a im> n - ^' nte <|: 
many strings, and were most beautifully °’‘ na (o ,|, f 
answering “in the houses of Egyptian & in re5 i- 
splendid grand pianos which adorn our mo 
dences.”— Dunstan. 

the etude 

Correcting Waste in the Teachers’ Business 


The musician and music teacher, as a class, has 
been segregated so long, in fact, ever since the art 
began to be an art, that it is sometimes difficult for the 
individual earning his living by means of music to 
realize that the embargo has been removed, and that 
he is not only a musician and music teacher, but also 
a business man. As a business man he is entitled to 
all of the recognition and benefits which such a title 
confers, quite aside from all of the extra honors which 
his profession may shower upon him, but he is also 
burdened with all of the responsibilities and disagree¬ 
able things which the business man has long had to 

In the times of Haydn and Mozart, of Beethoven 
and Liszt, and even later when it was the custom to 
seek out a rich patron, the life of the musician was in 
some ways more difficult and at the same time more 
devoid of anxiety. If one had the good fortune to 
become a part of the menage of some nobleman of 
means who supported music because he liked it or be¬ 
cause it was considered necessary to have certain 
musicians in the retinue, then the musician’s problems 
of existence were in a measure solved. True, he had 
to eat and live with the servants, and often perform 
menial services; he had to compose on order and play 
when commanded, yet his material wants were sup¬ 
plied. Fame, in some measure, but not to the greatest 
extent, was possible, financial success impossible ex¬ 
cepting in a small way. 

With the elimination of the patron came the neces¬ 
sity of not only composing and playing, but of doing 
so in such a way that the necessary money was forth¬ 
coming to pay for sustenance. Though the musician 
operating on his own resources could not have the 
position which descended upon him through the patron- 
sge of some one of the nobility, yet music, freed from 
dictation as well as support, really entered upon its 
full estate as a profession and as a business. The his¬ 
tory of music from that time may be the history of 
an art struggling to attain to the fullest expression, 
out it is also the story of a profession developing along 
economic lines so that it might preserve its very exist¬ 
ence by conforming to the business principles of the 
osy. and developing those principles, so that it might 
m the future become a business of great magnitude 
and of definite purposes and results. That this has 
* en ' ,' n a measure, accomplished can be shown by the 
magnitude of the sums *spent every year in music and 
e businesses and arts which are so closely allied as 
m be impossible of maintenance should the art have 
•ailed to develop. 

^ Emitting, then, that music is a business, it is neces- 
Sai ? ^ the business is to succeed, it must, as far 
as its peculiar characteristics allow, develop according 
0 me business principles of the age in which it is 
Practiced. Business, in itself, has so developed in this 
^ountry that we have passed the period of the use and 
0 V0 u | 10n of mere material resources, and have set for 
hav VeS • t * le pro * , * ems °f conserving that which we 
den! ■ ' S n0t now a Q uestion of discovering mineral 
’ Sl * s ’ manufacturing for volume only careless of 
thp S } cons ' der ' n K only how much can be made by 
. east ‘ffort, but of economizing so that the re- 
c rces Wh ' ch we have> both men and materials, be so 
thf- S ^ rVec ^ dlat dle greatest results are obtained with 
q east expenditure of time, effort and material, 
the^ manufactur ' n 8: businesses, railroad systems of 
citie rSt ™ agn ' tude > the Federal Government, States, 
the S ’ lnd ' v ' dl,a * enterprises, are all being probed by 
pre ^. and fortunes saved from the waste hitherto 

niles^'f thou ? h an ar t and subject to some of the 
the sa? art ' st ' c Production, is a business because it is 
make* 6 a certa 'n product, whether time or material 
Uav' S T '° . di ^ erence > for a certain sum of money. 
Plavei- ng L Sif * e tl,e Peculiar problems of the singer and 
who would barter artistic products for fame as 

well as money on the concert and operatic stages, the 
teacher more nearly represents a purely business 
proposition than any other branch of musical endeavor. 
In brief, the teacher’s problem is to sell a minimum 
amount of time at a maximum price, which is precisely 
the problem of any other kind of business. 

Some may disagree as to the minimum amount of 
time, but there can be really no argument there. Music 
is an art in that it requires time aside from the selling 
hours, during which the salesman or teacher must 
manufacture the goods which he has for sale. This 
means, then, that every hour sold takes from his abil¬ 
ity to prepare himself for demonstrations in or out of 
classes, and for gathering that reserve power which 
is the sign of the successful teacher. As far as a 
maximum price is concerned, any teacher who accepts 
less or ceases for an instant to demand every cent 
which he can get for his services is doing not only an 
injustice to himself, but to his profession, and is lay¬ 
ing the foundation for future trouble. Who is the best 
teacher in your town, as far as the public is concerned, 
the man who is a thorough musician but gets ridicu¬ 
lously small fees, or the man who while he may not be 
quite as well equipped, gets the biggest fees? Who 
gets the most talented pupils, the best material to work 
with, the cheap teacher or the man who charges more 
than the rest? And, in direct consequence, whose 
pupils make the successes? 


The first, and most important business rule is, there¬ 
fore, make your charge for lessons as high as the com¬ 
munity will stand, and base those prices not on what 
your competitors are getting, but upon the standard 
of charges for other things. The teacher ought not to 
make the price; the standard of living should deter¬ 
mine the charge for lessons. 

No business man who starts a new enterprise draws 
out of it all of the proceeds for his own uses. As he 
succeeds he takes but a portion of what comes in and 
devotes the remainder to extending his business. It 
may be that he adds to his stock, advertises more, 
hires better salesmen, or enlarges his quarters; at 
least, his business at the end of each year is worth 
more because more is put into it. If it is not, if he 
does not invest more, he is soon driven out of busi¬ 
ness by more wide-awake competitors. 

The music teacher, on the other hand, takes from his 
business all of the profits possible, and seldom, or 
never, invests any more than his original sum in his 
business. Why not follow the lead of the merchant? 
As each year shows a profit let a certain amount be 
set aside for extension purposes. It may be for a 
year’s study—that is, the enlarging of the line of goods 
for sale which is really the fundamental principle of 
all business, for unless a man has a satisfactory stock 
he is bound to end his career either in business or 
music sooner or later, usually sooner; it may be for 
refurnishing or relocating the studio or the purchase 
of instruments or a library of works to supplement 
the usual teaching; it may be for recitals or a com¬ 
prehensive scheme of advertising. Unless the average 
teacher does these things he will invariably find that 
some wide-awake competitor has stolen a march on 
him, and that his business is on the down grade. The 
time to save a business is when it is prosperous, not 
when it has in it the seeds of dissolution. 

For the teacher who is about to locate in a city as a 
beginner or even as an experienced musician, the first 
impression which he creates is of importance. Busi¬ 
ness is not a matter of one big thing, but of the sum 
of many small things seemingly unimportant. Per¬ 
sonal appearance, accessibility of studio, advertising, 
business methods in collecting accounts, recitals, all arc 
a part of the sum total which go to make up business 



I have known hundreds of successful teachers in my 
experience, but in all that number I do not recall a suc¬ 
cessful teacher of the long-haired, unkempt kind. The 
average man wants his sons and daughters to study 
with a human being, not with a freak. Avoid manner¬ 
isms, peculiarities, anything which might not be accept¬ 
able in the social circles of the average American cityt 
The teacher does not draw his income from the few 
students who are taking lessons with an idea that the 
world is waiting for their tremendous talents, but from 
the children of business men. The average man wants 
his children to study music because he feels that it is 
a part of the educational scheme of the present day, a 
part of die culture which goes to make up every-day 
life. For this reason he looks at the musician not for 
his technic and ability to make his children play more 
notes to the minute than anyone else, but for general 
and refining influences, due not only to the study of 
music, but the association with one who knows the 
great masterpieces, and has himself acquired culture 
through such association. Be normal, and, if the 
equipment is right, you will be successful. 

Cultivate individuality. Read widely, observe closely, 
study every-day questions. A well-educated teacher 
who is musically equipped and who can meet his pa¬ 
trons on their own ground, plus whatever he may have 
of personality and individuality, will be sure to be a 
dominating figure. Add tq the average man a close 
acquaintance with one of the fine arts and you have a 
business man, plus a culture, which gives hint that in¬ 
definable something which makes his company sought. 
Develop this in yourself and you are well started on 
the road to business success. 


Cultivate the social side of your profession. Locate 
your studio in an irreproachable part of your city, fur¬ 
nish it as one would furnish any general meeting room. 
Do not over-eniphasize tile musical-artistic side until 
the room is unrestful to the average parent who is like 
a fish out of water when lie is in a foreign atmos¬ 
phere. Connect your studios, by means of their fur¬ 
nishings, with the ideas and ideals to which your 
patrons are accustomed. Follow the same rule for 

Use your recitals not as technical demonstrations, 
but as gatherings where all meet on a common ground 
of cordiality. Remember, the student is not there to 
show how far lie has developed toward the concert 
stage, but to satisfy the manifold demands of the par¬ 
ents along the lines of culture, instead of making the 
recital a show make it a cultural meeting place. Along 
these lines it might not be amiss to suggest that the 
studios ought not to be closed to the public excepting 
four or five times a year, but should be open for all 
purposes germane to the musical development of the 
town. In a like way, the teacher should know her 
patrons intimately, and should not feel above the or¬ 
ganization of inusicales at their homes, even if they are 
hut informal. 

Such things go far toward solving the advertising 
problem. Advertising is not merely inserting a card in 
a local paper. Advertising is the setting before the 
public the merits of certain goods in such terms that 
the public will be attracted toward those goods. Any 
method, therefore, which brings favorably before a 
teacher’s constituents his abilities as a teacher of music 
and as an influence along cultural lines is advertising. 
One, however, must not forget that the local paper is 
the one which gives space to recitals and other an¬ 
nouncements, and that certain advertising is often pro¬ 
ductive of more space for notices. Such advertising 
also identifies one with local interests, which is a good 
policy, especially if one does not really belong to the 


The heart of business conduct is finally the collection 
system. The grocer or merchant will allow a certain 
credit, and then if the bill is not paid the supplies cease. 
There is no reason, therefore, why the teacher who is 
giving lessons to pupils from the families of these 
business men should allow any longer credit. The 
whole fault usually lies in the way in which business 
relations are established. The qualifications of the 
teacher are examined, he is usually asked for reduced 
rates, and the hours of lessons are arranged, but noth¬ 
ing is said about time of payment. I have always 
found that a plain statement of conditions of payment 
is accepted without disagreeable consequences, and 
once such an understanding is had the payments are 
reasonably prompt. I, myself, have never lost a dollar 





in bad teaching accounts. The teacher who states 
frankly to the parent of the pupil that bills will be sent 
promptly on the first of each month, and that no more 
than thirty days’ credit will be given, will, in ninety- 
nine cases out of a hundred, get his money on time. 
In the other case, it is probably the teacher’s fault be¬ 
cause he did not investigate his patron before accept¬ 
ing his child as a pupil; in other words, he extended 
credit where credit should not have been given. There 
is no real reason why a teacher who is expected to be 
prompt in the giving of his lessons should fail to get 
the same treatment in regard to payments from his 
patrons. Unpaid bills and unpaid charges for lessons 
missed are, in my opinion, due to the false modesty 
which prevents the teacher from settling the details 
of payment before the lessons are begun. If, how¬ 
ever, such a state of affairs comes into being the 
teacher should act decisively and refuse further les¬ 
sons. If all teachers were to form an association in 
each town and agree not to accept pupils who liad 
been dismissed by other teachers for non-payment of 
bills, the question would be speedily solved. 


Finally, there should be economy of effort and time, 
for both of these represent money. Business men, 
themselves, take summer vacations because of the need 
of change, but not one in a hundred ends his season 
as fagged out and as nervous as a music teacher. A 
musician who is physically fit for a business life of 
any sort owes his troubles to himself if he ends his 
season with his vitality depleted and his nerves in such 
a condition that he is ready for a sanitarium. Over¬ 
work should be avoided, hours so arranged that plenty 
of time is allowed for exercise, and the studio kept at 
such a temperature and so ventilated that it cannot 
vitiate one. All application has a tendency to deplete 
the reserve force, but there is no need of aiding this 
work by causing the conditions under which one labors 
to be adverse. 

Much mental effort is wasted in trying to remember 
what the student was to prepare for the lesson. A 
card system, easily cared for, will take this mental 
effort from the teacher. A careful economy of time 
and consequent prevention of overlapping of lessons 
will remove the worry which one feels when he knows 
he is behind time and that other pupils are waiting. A 
few hours spent in establishing a weekly and daily sys¬ 
tem of work, and then an adherence to that system, 
will enable the teacher to do ten per cent, more work, 
and to end his season in good physical and mental 

The great trouble with the teaching business is that 
it is a business which is conducted along the lines of 
art and not business. Let the teacher realize this and 
leave questions of art aside when he plans his work. 
Business is business, and art is art, and the two do not 
mix. Keep the art for the student and the lesson hour, 
and think of your teaching outside of those hours as a 
business, as the marketing of so much time at so much 
per hour. Cultivate business exactness in yourself, and 
you will find that your pupils and their parents will 
conform to these business standards, and that other 
business men will respect you, and business respect 
means more success, and therefore more income. 

While all businesses depend on certain fundamental 
principles, yet each business has its own details, which 
are to be solved along certain well-defined lines. Like¬ 
wise, a business in Ohio is not to be conducted along 
the same lines as a business in New York City. The 
fundamental principles may be the same, but the de¬ 
tails will invariably differ. For this reason no one per¬ 
son can solve the questions of any one individual un¬ 
less he himself has experienced those difficulties, or 
else can examine conditions and put himself in the 
place of the local teacher. 


To my mind,_ what the average American teacher 
needs, aside from adherence to fundamental business 
principles, is more independence and imagination. He 
needs independence to meet his problems with an as¬ 
surance which causes many difficulties to vanish and 
imagination to solve those problems which cannot be 
solved by merely taking a stand. Too many teachers 
in this country reserve their independence and imagi¬ 
nation for the performing of some musical work. If 
the business problems which are to be met with in 
everyday life by the music teacher were attacked with 
the same assurance and interest and imagination with 
which the teacher attacks a new composition, there 
would be little need for one to advise the teacher how 
to conduct his business. The practice of music as a 

profession calls for a maximum of intelligence, and a 
little of this applied along common-sense business lines 
will solve all of the problems which the teacher has to 
meet. Business success does not depend on card files 
and clever musical ideas and advertising, but upon the 
appreciation of the fundamental principles of business 
and their application to local and personal conditions. 
The teacher who needs to be told, with a multiplicity 
of details, just how to manage his business had better 
take a position where these will be handled for him, 
and where he will have nothing to do but give lessons. 
A liberal use of more of the common-sense for which 
Americans are noted and a less use of temperament, 
most of which is assumed, anyhow, will enable any 
sane musician to solve his business problems with sat¬ 
isfaction to himself and more money in his pocket! 


No. S. The percussion instruments and the harp. 


The percussion instruments of the orchestra form the 
last of the four groups we have considered in this series 
of articles. These instruments, as their name implies, 
are struck in some way, and are the outcome of the very 
natural instinct to “beat time” found among even savage 
tribes. This instinct, by the way, often finds an outlet 
in the concert hall, where-indiscreet musical enthusiasts 
sometimes improvise a drum out of the floor, and beat 
upon it in time to the music with their heels, or um¬ 
brellas, or any other handy weapon. 

The most familiar percussion instrument is the big 
bass drum, which is beaten so sedulously by Salvation 
Army enthusiasts. This instrument has a place in the 
orchestra, but is only employed in the most strenuous 
moments as a rule. Far more important are the tym- 
pani, or kettle drums. These are cauldron-shaped in¬ 
struments which can be tuned to a definite pitch by 
tightening the membrane drumhead. Usually two of 
them are employed, but modern composers often call 
for three or even more, so as to save additional tuning 
in the middle oi a piece or to secure additional effects. 
The side drum is the only other important member of 
the drum tribe. It is much smaller, and has a double 
strand of catgut across its lower head, giving a peculiar 
“pattering” effect very useful where a brisk rhythm is 
desired. A crescendo from a hardly audible pianissimo 
to a loud fortissimo can be executed on either the 
tympani or the side drum—or even the bass drum—and 
is very rousing in effect. The writers of “storm” music 
would be seriously hindered without these crescendos. 
They can, however, be employed to serious purpose as 
may be discovered by studying Beethoven’s fourth and 
ninth symphonies, where crescendo rolls are employed 
with stirring results. The chief function of the drums, 
however, is to emphasize accents, or rhythmic passages.’ 
Closely allied to the drums is the tamborine, a small 
instrument with “baby” cymbals inserted in the rim; 
this instrument has also been made familiar through the 
good offices of the Salvation Army. 


The instruments described above are all based on the 
striking of a stretched membrane, or parchment. The 
other percussion instruments are formed either of wood 
or metal, and are much less frequently employed. These 
include cymbals—large, flat discs of hammered gun- 
metal, which when struck together give a quite bar¬ 
baric clash. This clash is not infrequently played piano 
especially in music where oriental effects are needed- 
the triangle, a triangular bar of hard steel which has a 
pleasant, fairy-like effect when struck with a metal rod • 
the castagnets, formed from two pieces of hard wood 
and much employed in Spanish or Moorish music, 
though there is no grounds for assuming this instrument 
is peculiar to Spain; the carillon, a set of tubular 
bells; the xylophone, a kind of carillon made of hard 
wooL employed with rather gruesome effect in Saint- 
Saens’ Danse macabre to represent the rattling of bones 
The gong, or tam-tam,, an instrument of Chinese origin 
consisting of a metal disc which on being struck or 
rather rubbed with a covered drumstick, emits a rather 
sinister roar. There is another form of tam-tam which 
comes from Burmah and emits a shriller note Its use 
is very infrequent. The Chinese gong has been employed 
most impressively by Strauss in his Tod und Verklar- 
ung. at the moment of death. The only other important 
member of the percussion group is the celesta, a modern 
keyboard instrument of exquisite bell-like tone. It is 
developed from the resonators employed by students of 

acoustics in connection with their tuning-forks 1 t, 
been used with ravishing effect in Tchaikovski r 
Noisette suite—a work which has not yet attained^ 
popularity in this country that it deserves. 

The harp is an instrument which is much in ev'd 
in the modern orchestra. It possesses a range of 2 
six and a half octaves, and its strings are tuned toT 
diatonic scale of C flat. By a system of pedals th' 
strings can be varied in pitch so as to conform to an! 
key. This instrument is at its best where '•ethereal" / 
heavenly effects are desired. It is so employed in th! 
finale of Gounod’s Faust with great appropriateness. It 
is also of great use in accompanying love-songs or sones 
such as those sung by the minstrels in Taimhausert 
the contest in the second act. Glissando scales can be 
employed on it with ravishing effect, as for instance in 
Rimsky-Korsakov’s Capriccio on Spanish themes , a truly 
remarkable piece of tone-coloring. 

The percussion instruments and the harps are some¬ 
what in the nature of extras in the orchestra, as there 
is much excellent music in which they are not employed 
at all, and they are very limited in scope. New addi¬ 
tions are always being made to this group, and many 
special effects are demanded. Wagner had a special 
instrument contrived for Bayreuth to represent the bells 
required in Parsifal; while some of the modern com¬ 
posers—notably Josef Holbrooke, the English composer 
—seem to take a special delight in demanding instru¬ 
ments which can only be assembled once in a lifetime. 
Tchaikovsky’s score of the 1812 Overture demands 
cannons to be fired as well as bells to be rung, and 
Berlioz was caricatured freely in his day for his aston¬ 
ishing demands in the way of percussion instruments, 
The fact remains, however, that as a rule, these in¬ 
struments are very sparingly employed in the orchestra. 



The aim of most piano students is to be able to amuse 
themselves and entertain their friends. This can he 
done to a certain extent with the pieces they study, 
but how much greater are the opportunities open in 
this direction, to the good sight player! All accom¬ 
plished musicians know the great pleasure derived from 
playing new music. We tire somewhat of the pieces 
studied weeks and months, and something entirely 
new is refreshing and stimulating to our friends as 
to ourselves. The ability to accompany well, generally 
speaking, depends greatly on right playing, and accom¬ 
panying may be a source of much pleasure and profit, 
musically, to the pianist and his friends. 

Sight playing is not much cultivated by the usual 
study of pieces, but it makes the work of learning new 
music much easier, and is therefore important for tne 
pupil’s general progress. I find pupils much interest 
in it, also. Give as much time from each lesson as 
can reasonably be spared, to playing at sight. 
with pieces simple enough for the pupil to play '* 1 
very few mistakes, but do not be too strict as to evoy 
note being correct. Insist on correct time, " oweT v 
and train the pupil as early as possible to P*ay 0I L 
spite of mistakes—a necessary habit for a gooa afP 
player. With some pupils this can be enforced aim ■ 
from the beginning. . „ 

When the student is well started in this practice, 
that he can be depended upon to continue P r0 . ., 
alone, he should have pieces of suitable difneu tj 
practice at home each day. Perhaps some wi • 
that gives him another excuse to neglect his ot " er , p j, 
tice, which should have first place. But remem 
will help his study generally, and try it. . . . : n 

Conservatism seems to be a settled P nn ” P ^. frf 
human nature generally; hence we teach as w ^ 
taught, and neglect opportunities for giving P u ?' rfce j v . 
musical training in the ways they are capable o ^ 
ing it. Doubtless, that is why amateur piams s ^ 
quently give up playing soon after their * ess0 5ptn d 
or grind out the popular trash on which many 
their time. 

What a transient thing is music. A ^ omP t j, ev sre 
record his thoughts on paper, but um es ® e j nlfr . 
translated into sound they are still-wrn. ^ yid 
prefer alone can give them existence. 11 .'T aJ f shake 
of the musical interpreter, as Landor said o ^ 
speare, when the great playwright was cha ^ £ or jgiiul 
borrowing from other poets, “He was wot 
than the originals. He breathed upon dea 
and brought them to life.” 

The Wisdom of Richard Wagner. 

A series of carefully selected paragraphs from Wagner’s Collected Works, giving an insight to the philosophy of the Master 

The common world, still standing under the influ¬ 
ence of experiences forced upon it from without, and 
grasping nothing that is not driven home to its sense 
of touch, so to say, can never comprehend the position 
of the poet towards his experimental world. It will 
never be able to account for the striking positiveness 
of his fashionings, otherwise than that they must at 
some time have come as directly to his own experience 
as all that it has made a note of in its memory. 

That phenomenon I have observed strikingly in my 
own case. With my poetic conceptions I have been so 
far ahead of my experiences that I may consider my 
moral development as almost exclusively induced and 
brought about by those conceptions; Flying Dutchman, 
TotnhSuser, Lohengrin, Nibelungs, Wotan —all existed 
earlier in my head than in my experience. 

It is the latest years of my life that really have ma¬ 
tured me to a man; I feel at perfect harmony with my- 
teif, and whenever the True is at stake my will stands 
rm an< l fast. As for material life, I cheerfully allow 
m >self to be guided by my instinct; something higher 
| meant with me than the mere value of my person- 
Jl 'ty. This knowledge is so rooted in me that with 
a smile I scarcely ask myself at times and I will a 
Jmg or no; that care is taken by the curious genie 
int""I * SerVC ^ 0r lb ' s remainder of my life, and who 
°!ds me to finish only what I can bring about. 

I was at first startled at your new year’s article, but 
*°on perceived that here again I am indebted to your 
'^-increasing sympathy. If, however, you represent 
T work as something colossal, you mistake, in my 
Pinion, the standard of measurement; to me, leaving 
u artistic publicity, the spirit of our means of repre- 
ntation, etc., appear to be very small and miserable, 
le my work is just in accordance with ordinary 
lr man Proportions, and appears gigantic only when we 
-' to confine it to those unworthy conditions.—( From 
lller to Frans Liszt.) 

feel Cannot te }l you too often how miserably weak I 
that I S 3 mus ’ c ' an - I know, in the depth of my heart, 
me ;, am an absol «te blunderer. You ought to watch 
jjl,." en I am at it-; now thinking, “it must do after 
wr’et u'* ? , n g0 ' ng to the piano to puzzle out some 
idic, C , ™ rubb ’ s h, and giving it up again in a state of 
, n ' ^h, how I feel then! how thoroughly per- 
ed of m y musical wretchedness 1 

Jr*’ reason of a nature wholly sound at core, 
"; ver s P e ak otherwise than correctly. He pro- 
‘pig7-|»' V,,h the self - same clearness the rhetorical 
?rev ' anc * t * 1e genuine dramatic accent; with him 
and ,17 a,wavs S re y. and red, red; only that this grey 
'bis red were equally bathed with the freshening 

dew of his music, were resolved into all the nuances 
of the primordial color, and thus appeared as many- 
tinted grey, as many-tinted red. Instinctively his music 
ennobled all tile conventional stage characters pre¬ 
sented him, by polishing, as it were, the rough-hewn 
stone, by turning all its facets to the light, and finally 
by fixing it in that position where the light could smite 
it into brightest play of color. In this way was he 
able to lift the characteristics of Don Juan, for in¬ 
stance, into such a fulness of expression that a writer 
like Hoffmann could fall on the discovery of the deep¬ 
est, most mysterious relations between them, relations 
of which neither poet nor musician had been ever 
really conscious. 

German musicians stood close enough to the spirit 
of Beethoven to keep aloof from the wildest antics 
that sprang from the misunderstanding of the master. 
They sought to save themselves from the consequences 
of that expressional manner, by polishing down its 
most jutting angles; by taking up again the older 
fashions of expression, and weaving them into these 
newest, they formed themselves an artificial mixture 
that we can only call a general abstract style of music, 
in which one might go on music-ing with great pro¬ 
priety and respectability for quite a length of time 
without much fear of its lieing disturbed by drastic 
individualities. If Beethoven mostly gives us tin- im¬ 
pression of a man who has something to tell u-, which 
yet he cannot plainly impart: on the other hand, these 
modern followers of his appear like men who, often 
in a charmingly circumstantial fashion, impart to us 
the news that they have nothing at all to say. 

The whole world hurrahed Rossini for his melodies; 
issini who so admirably knew how to make the cm- 
lyment of these melodics a special art. All organiz- 
r of Form he left upon one side; the simplest, har¬ 
dest and most transparent thing that came to hand, 
filled with all the logical contents it had ever 
eded— w ith narcotizing Melody. Entirely uncon- 
rned for Form, just because he left it altogether un- 
iturbed. he turned his whole genius to the invention 
the most amusing hocus-pocus for execution within 
.,56 forms. ... But who more idolized than Rossini 
r all these deeds of good than the whole civilized 
irld—so far as the opera-house could hold it? And 
io had better reason than it had? Who with so 
tch talent, had shown it such profound consideration 
Rossini ? 

So long as Beethoven was at unison with the spirit 
his musical era, and simply embedded the flower of 
at spirit in his works; so long could the reflex of 
s art-production prove nothing but beneficial to his 
rroundings. But from the time when. ,n concord 
th the moving sorrows of his life, there awoke in tin 

artist a longing for distinct expressions of specific 
characteristically individual emotions—as though to un¬ 
bosom himself to the intelligent sympathy of fellow 
men—and this longing grew into an ever more compell¬ 
ing force; from the time when he began to care less 
and less about merely making music, about expressing 
himself agreeably, enthrallingly or inspiritingly in gen¬ 
eral, within that music; and instead thereof was driven 
by the necessity of his inner being to employ his art in 
bringing to sure and seizable expression a definite Con¬ 
tent that absorbed his thoughts and feelings; thence¬ 
forth begins the agony of this deep-stirred man and 
imperative-straying (nothsvendigirretiden) artist. Upon 
the curious hearer who did not understand him, sim¬ 
ply because the inspired man could not make himself 
intelligible to such an one, these mighty transports and 
the half-sorrowful, half-blissful stammerings of a 
Pythian inspiration, could not but make the impression 
of a genius stricken with madness. 

The Orchestra is Harmony’s realized Thought, in its 
highest, most vital nobility. 

Look aroiind you, and sec where ye live, and for 
whom ye make your art I 

The Public of our theatres has no need for Art¬ 
work; it wants to distract itself when it takes its seat 
before the stage, but not to collect itself; and the need 
of the seeker after distraction is merely for artificial 
details, but not for an artistic unity. If we gave it a 
whole, the public would lie blindly driven to tear that 
whole to disconnected fragments, or, in the most for¬ 
tunate event, it would he called upon to understand a 
thing which it altogether refuses to understand; where¬ 
fore, in its full consciousness, it turns its hack on any 
such artistic aim. 

The begetter of the Art-work of the Future is none 
other than the Artist of the Present, who presages that 
Life of tlie Future, and yearns to be contained therein. 
He who cherishes this longing within the innermost 
chandler of his powers, he lives already in a better 
life; lmt only one can do this thing—the Artist 

Poet and Musician arc like two travelers who have 
started from one departure-point, from thence to jour¬ 
ney straight ahead in opposite directions. Arrived at 
the opposite point of the Earth they meet again; each 
has wandered around one-half the planet. They fall a 
questioning one another and each tells each what he 
has seen and found. The Poet describes the plains, 
the mountains, valleys, fields, the men and beasts, 
which he has met upon his distant journey through the 
mainland. The Musician has voyaged across the seas, 
and recounts the wonders of the ocean; on its breast 
he has often been nigh to sinking, and its deeps and 
strange-shaped monsters have filled him half with ter- 



ror, half with joy. Roused by each other’s stories, and 
irresistibly compelled to learn for themselves the 
Other which each has not yet seen—so as to make into 
an actual experience impressions merely taken up in 
fancy—they part again, each to complete his journey 
round the Earth. At their first starting-point they 
meet at last once more; the Poet now has battled 
through the seas, the Musician has stridden through 
the continents. Now they part no more, for they both 
know the Earth; what they earlier had imagined in 
their boding dreams, as they fashioned thus and thus, 
has nc»w been witnessed by them in its actuality. They 
are One; for each knows and feels what the other 
feels and knows. The Poet has become Musician, the 
Musician Poet; now they are both an entire Artistic 

Pining for redemption, the Poet stands at present 
in the winter- frost of speech, and looks yearningly 
across the snow-flats of pragmatic prose, with which 
are cloaked the erst so richly dizened fields, the sweet 
countenance of Mother Earth. But here and there un¬ 
der the warm gushes of his sorrowing breath, the stub¬ 
born snow begins to melt; and lo!—from out Earth’s 
bosom sprout before him fresh green buds, shooting 
forth all new and lush from the ancient roots-he took 
for dead—until at last the sun of a new and never- 
aging human springtide mounts aloft, dissolves away 
the snow, and lets the buds all burgeon into fragrant 
blossoms welcoming the sun with smiling eye. 



From time immemorial “practice” has been a byword 
with teachers of all kinds and classes, but most of all 
perhaps with teachers of music. It has been constantly 
referred to as the great remover of obstacles, the es¬ 
sential preliminary to success, the one idea to be cher¬ 
ished by the student as the essence of all the virtues 
which he should acquire. Yet that same word “prac¬ 
tice,” as usually understood by the student, is associated 
with ideas the reverse of cheerful. Neither does the 
success which it is said to beget by any means invari¬ 
ably follow; indeed “practice” often leads to staleness, 
nervous prostration, cramp and other evils. 

The truth of the matter is, that though practice is an 
absolute necessity and the sine qua non of all progress, 
the immense majority of students, not to speak of 
teachers, do not know how to practice. Indeed, cor¬ 
rect ideas on the subject are of very recent growth. 
Its fundamental principles have yet to be taught to the 
world of weary aspirants. 


The psychological principle at the basis of all prac¬ 
tice is as old as life itself—it was unconsciously fol¬ 
lowed from the time when the first amoeba, the simplest 
form of animal life, extended a temporary tentacle in a 
tentative way towards the particle of food or ray of . 
light and warmth to which it was attracted with all 
the intensity of desire of which it was capable. The ex¬ 
periment succeeded after many attempts, but the par¬ 
ticular movement which was attended by success was 
thereby impressed more vividly upon the primitive mem¬ 
ory than those which were unsuccessful. In the next 
attempt, the memory of the sensations experienced had 
its effect, and along the channels of deeper impres¬ 
sion nerve currents found their way in greater pro¬ 
portion, and a successful movement was repeated after 
fewer attempts. With each successive attempt, the 
proper channels were dug more and more deeply, until 
by far the greater part of the nervous energy was 
directed into them when the primitive amoeba was 
shaken through the depths of its being by its primitive 

With the development of consciousness matters are 
facilitated, and doubtless a baby succeeds in putting the 
object it longs to suck to its mouth instead of its ear 
or nose, after a fewer number of attempts than would 
be the case with a less conscious being. 

Heredity, also, plays its part—the object is directed 
from the first towards the face or head, not towards 
the back or toes. When the baby grows older and be¬ 
comes a young miss at the keyboard much the same 
principles are carried out with more or less success— 
probably less, as the desire is less intense. 

Our young student, however, should be developing 
her intellect as well as her consciousness, and as soon 
as she enters into her teens (before which time it is 
not advisable to begin the study of an instrument) she 

has a fair idea of the importance of her intelligence, 
and would generally greatly resent any aspersion cast 
upon her intellectual powers. 

We are only beginning to learn how to think, to 
learn how to make use of the knowledge which we 
have accumulated through observation of facts, to learn 
to give ourselves a logical reason for all things we do. 
Were it otherwise, we should long ago have learnt how 
to eliminate the wasteful part of practice and retain and 
strengthen its essential elements. 


This essential element, upon which the acquisition of 
automatic or semi-automatic movements depends, is the 
strong—we might almost say joyful—impression created 
by the first movement which successfully achieves the 
desired end. If this first movement be correct, so 
much the better; if it be incorrect, it will cause a 
greater difficulty than before if we wish in the end to es¬ 
tablish automatically a correct movement. 

The same end may often be achieved by quite a num¬ 
ber of incorrect movements—incorrect because they are 
mechanically wasteful of energy, physiologically at¬ 
tended by wrong muscular actions or conditions and 
consequent strain, or otherwise not fulfilling the condi¬ 
tion of minimum expenditure of energy, mechanical or 
nervous or metabolic. It is therefore of primary im¬ 
portance that a correct movement should be impressed, 
and impressed strongly, from the first. 

The wasteful elements are, apart from movements 
which, though incorrect, succeed in achieving the de¬ 
sired end, the host of incorrect and unsuccessful at¬ 
tempts which are generally made in any but the simplest 
things before some lucky chance brings about the per¬ 
formance of a successful movement. Those unsuccess¬ 
ful movements all create their own nerve tracks, which 
invite the flow of nervous energy into them, to the 
detriment of the nerve impulses which should be kept 
in the sole channels dug for them during the perform¬ 
ance of a successful and correct movement. 

The problem may then be stated: “How to establish 
in a sufficiently definite and permanent manner the 
nerve tracks attendant upon the performance of correct 
movements, without interference by a network of use¬ 
less channels dug by unsuccessful movements?” Pass¬ 
ing first to the second part of the problem, we may 
observe that a network of wrong channels mav be 
avoided by performing the desired movements 'verv 
slowly under the continual guidance of the senses of 
sight and touch. In this way every tendency to a 
wrong direction is corrected before it has had time to 
dig a channel of any appreciable length. This may be 
illustrated by the attempt to draw a straight line be¬ 
tween two points at a good distance from each other 
‘"expert draughtsman endeavors to draw such a 
'th one quick movement, he will in nine cases out 
fail completely. If, however, he draws the line 
slowly under the continual guidance of the eye, and 
especially if there be a few dots in between the two 
points in a straight line from one to the other, the line 
may be wavy and ragged, but will never anywhere 
depart much from the right direction, and will in the 
end connect the two points. The line once drawn 
faintly, it becomes easy to go over it again and patch 
it up until a fairly neat straight line has been drawn 

speak, being given up to the particular fe*i;„ 
enced. This is best done with closed ev !f ' Xfe ' 
quiet surroundings, so as to prevent other M(l * 
obtruding themselves upon the conscious*?? 
original position is then regained with eve.T ^ 

which the eyes are closed as before and t?’ 8 ”'' 
consciousness is bent upon recalling the * 
evoked in the previous position. A s soon * e "f tions 
pressions are recalled with sufficient vividne. ' “ 
tempt must be made actually to reproduce them? 
quick and decisive repetition of the movement whid 
first secured the position in which they were 
enced. In nine cases out of ten, if the concentratK 
been really good and the slow movement pre fc 
executed with conscious deliberation, the results? 
success, and three repetitions of the process areas !1 
sufficient permanently to establish the correct mol 
ments and positions in that part of the nervous svsi 
concerned with the semi-automatic functions 
Certain rules, however, have to be observed in 
course of this process of concentration, otherwise 
purpose in view will be only half achieved, and mi 
even be defeated. Among them is the important m 
c’Ple* obtaining throughout all muscular sense training 
that only one set of sensations, connected with as simple 
a movement as possible, should be evoked at a time 
otherwise the mind cannot be properly concentrated 
This involves the analyzing of every movement, if it 
be not simple, into its constituent simple movements. 
Another and very useful principle of muscular sense 
training is, that if the component simple movements 
have been separately practiced, the compound movement 
which comprises them will be performed accurately 
without additional practice. A corollary of that prin¬ 
ciple is, that if the positions of any two notes xy It 
separately established relatively to a given point t 
it will be found that the distance xy between them can 
be gauged without additional practice. 

All these principles of muscular sense training can Ik 
applied, not merely to accuracy in such matters as 
lateral arm movement, finger stretch, legato, etc., bat 
also to the acquisition of greater freedom and agility. 

line with o 


Schumann as a youth was typically German. Hr 
had just that blend of sentiment and philosophy whM 
is so redolent of the Fatherland. His musical spirit 
was ready to flame out at the least excuse, yet never 
did he fail to use his brains in an excess of emotional 
fervor. Take, for instance, the delightful compliment 
he paid to Meta Abegg, whom he met at a ball during 
his most impressionable age. He has immortalized her 
in his Opus 1, which is a piano piece founded on the 
letters forming her name, ABEGG. 


The interference of useless movements having been 
eliminated in this way, it remains to establish strongly 
the impressions created by the correct movement In 
the first place, the end to be attained, that is’ the position at the end of the movement, must be 
presented to the mind independently of the help of any 
senses but the one immediately concerned, the muscular 
sense. If we want to attain to the greatest freedom in 
any movement or in the taking up of any position, 
the muscular sense and the muscular sense alone must 
be our This all-important sense is at the basis of 
all successful practice, and yet is persistently ignored 
at least consciously. It can, however, be trained to a 
great pitch of accuracy, provided the muscles are by 
means of “full-contraction” and attention to the general 
health, brought to the highest degree of responsiveness 
and general perfection. But if the muscular sense is to 
be satisfactorily trained, all slipshod, inattentive half¬ 
hearted practice must cease, and the whole mind must 
be concentrated upon the sensations evoked. 

The desired position having been attained at the end 
of a technically correct movement very slowly and de¬ 
liberately performed under the guidance of the eye 
and when feasible of the touch, the muscular sensations 
evoked in that position should be firmly fixed upon the 
mind by intent concentration, the whole self so to 

He might have used these tones a dozen am ] 
ways, but his quick musical intelligence told ®® 
the most appropriate way was one in which the tne • 
soared upwards in a most ardent manner. The ®*^ 
would have been more correctly written if be na ^ 
the leap from B flat in the melody down to fc. 1 
of up, but the emotional effect would by no means 
been the same. . sVtf y 

The habit of portraying his friends in mu^c ^ 
common with Schumann. His romantic an 
Clara Wieck naturally found expression in music. •. 
Patterson, in her biography of Schumann, n** tht 
out how Schumann “speaks of finding ^' mse en f ag- 
piano when he thinks intently of her. She e 
gests chords of the ninth and thirteenth to ^ 
quotes the following chord as being her musica 

the etude 


The Teachers’ Round Table 

Conducted by N. J. COREY 

“1. In the Mathews’ (traded Course, Book V, 
there is an octale study which I uiunot play 
through once without tiring ray wrist. Can you 
tell me what Is the trouble? 

1. Octave playing long continued, even with loose 
wrist, will eventually tire. You should acquire the 
ability to play for a reasonable time without fatigue, 
however. As a test of the looseness of your wrist, 
place your hand on the keyboard striking an octave. 
Hold the keys down; raise the wrist as high as pos¬ 
sible without removing the thumb and fifth finger from 
their keys; then depress as low as poss'ble. Continue 
this motion for a little time. Now practice repeating 
the octave notes, at the same time slowly raising the 
wrist up and down as when the notes were held still. 
•Practice the scales in octaves, repeating each note eight 
times, making the wrist motions in same manner. Then 
try other exercises and scales without note repetitions, 
and moving the wrist as directed will prevent fatigue 
for some time. Drop the etude until you have prac¬ 
ticed exercises in octaves for a month. Procure the 
octave book of Mason’s Touch and Technic, and try 
and understand it. Boring’s Octave Studies will furnish 
useful practice. 

2. Czerny’s Opus 299 should be completed in the 
fourth grade. 

3. These words mean ritardando the second time 
over. That is, play without ritard the first time through, 
but on the repetition, when the passage is brought to a 
conclusion, do so with a ritard. 

week of practice on a piece the attention is so closely 
taken up with reading the notes, and adjusting the 
fingers to the keys, etc., that real advancement in finger 
agility hardly more than begins. It is a perfectly 
natural and human frailty in pupils to resent the re¬ 
assignment of a piece or etude for practice, for they 
invariably think they have not learned it well and 
have to take it over.” From the first disabuse them 
of this idea, which should be looked upon as a “left¬ 
over” from the past century. Teach them from the 
start that real practice begins after you have corrected 
the first study of the piece, and to consider that prac¬ 
tice simply continues until the piece is learned. 

2. If you are in the third grade, send to the pub¬ 
lisher for two or three albums or collections of second- 
grade pieces. First select all the easiest of them, look 
them over one by one and determine just how you 
think they ought to be played, especially as to tempo. 
Next attack them boldly and phy at the correct tempt 
from start to finish. Do not stop for mistakes; 
remember you are training your eye to grasp the notes 
quickly and the fingers to follow. Do not play more 
than twice in succession, but proceed from one to 
another, waiting until you have practically forgotten 
them before going over them again. Train yourself 
in this manner for several months, and when you have 
worn out one set of albums get some more. Under 
this regime you will find your ability to read quickly 
will rapidly develop. By no means, however, confus - 
this with your regular and careful practice, which 
should always begin very slowly and the tempo on a 
given piece increase as you gradually conquer the diffi¬ 


bright little pupil who com 

she thinks is „ I 

many wrong notes. I have tried note drills, read¬ 
ing notes aloud before playing, writing a portion 
and rorreetlng at lesson, but to little purpose, 
can you suggest something that will make her 
more accurate ?” M. V. 

Your little drills ought to help some, but the trouble 
is that she does not realize' them when she practices 
alone at home. The wrong notes she introduces come 
to her to sound correct, and the right ones wrong. 
Take a given piece, indicate with pencil the notes that 
are wrong, and tell her she must study out and correct 
those notes. Insist that she study these places two 
measures at a time, or in such short sections as you 
may mark. Go over some of them at the lessons with 
many repetitions, as you wish her to practice. It is not 
unlikely that she will return with them uncorrected. 
Go over the same ground again, and set her once more 
at its practice, giving a proportionately shorter advance 
lesson on other things. Keep at this until she realize* 
that it is necessary that she get it right, even thougn 
it takes several weeks. Study' the nature of the pupil. 
With some, scolding will make them more obstinate 
about trying to make the corrections. Rather exhibit 
surprise that so bright a pupil cannot get the notes 
corrected. Let it go as a good-natured matter, of 
course, that she must keep at the piece until ti e correc- 
Jions are made; that it is not learned until she does. 
These careless natures are often very hard to deal with. 


, “ 1 - I am practicing Czerny-Uebltng with great 
■neflt to ray lingers. Should I also practice scales 
and other finger exercises alone with i 

, ' ^ certain portion of your daily practice period 
ould be devoted to scales and arpeggios and exer¬ 
cises. The exercises should be varied in accordance 
*. Y° ur immediate needs, five-finger exercises, run- 
exercises, staccato, hand and arm touches, octaves. 
c - etc. With a practice period of two hours, a half 
°ur may be divided into three sections for the exer- 
? es ’ a half hour for new etude, a half hour for review 
» etudes and pieces, and a half hour for new piece. 
° m>t forget that the most profitable part of your 
practice will be on the review. You will then make 
an? r?r>i<1 pro « ress in both freedom of finger act : on 
spontaneity of interpretation. During the first 


"I have a young pupil « 
bliudnws, aim the doctors 

to Tench tile h'lnd. Can y< 
In this matter V 

is threatened with 
■ders are that she 
She Is anxious to 

Unfortunately your letter finds me totally without 
experience in teaching the blind, as badly off as you 
are yourself, in fact. I only know that there is a 
system of raised notes which the blind lea-n t > read 
by touch, and that they make rapid progress by means 
of it. Meanwhile this raises an interesting ques ion. 
Doubtless it comes up occasionally in remote viilage* 
and cities where the blind are unable to go to an 
institution, and still would like to take up the study 
of music. The Round Table would lie glad to receive 
very short letters from any teachers who have encoun¬ 
tered this problem, and be glad to print some of their 
experience in dealing with it for the benefit of other 
teachers who are at a loss h >w to proceed. I am 
unable to say whether it would be necessary for the 
teacher to learn to decipher the raised note system, or 
whether the could by reading the directions teach the 
student how to acquire it and verify resu’ts by follow¬ 
ing the printed page. I would suggest tint C. h write 
to the teacher of music at the State Institution for tin 
Blind in her State, or to a private institution if there 
be such. She can easily find where such institution' 
are located by inquiring of the doctors, or perhaps oi 
some of the county officials. 


“1. Wlmt books should ho riven a pupil after 
having finished C*erny-l.leJ>11nr. nuralier three? 

-2. Should the three hooks follow ot 
continuously, or should something elsi 
between? If wfcat. 

I>. M. 

If the student has thoroughly mastered hook three 
ffie Czcrnv-Liebling, lie has mastered Grade six. in 
irdance with the numbering of the Standard Course 
ch is in ten grades. During th's grade he should 
do the Two Part Inventions of Bach. Following 
selections from the Three Pan Inventions. Hav- 
also completed Cramer, which he sNm'd do if he 
not already taken it up. he may bectn the Gradus 
Pamassum” of dementi as edited by Taustg. or 
ctions from it. certain of the exercises not to he 
i at the present time. For octavo work Kullak s 
hool of Octaves” stilt is standard, but the admtr- 

by the teacher in order to intelligently teach octaves to 
pupils. Then may follow selections from Bach’s “We i 
Tempered Clavichord,” and the Chopin Etudes. 

2. Other material should be used in connection or in 
alternation with the Czerny-Liebling studies. The first 
book begins in Grade one, and the third ends in Grade 
six. They are by no means intended to be all-inclusive. 
Heller, opera 47, 45, 45 and 16, have many etudes that 
every well educated pupil stu.u'd know, and have the 
benefit of the training from. Or if not from these, 
their equivalents. Meanwhile there is nothing that cov¬ 
ers the ground of Heller, if properly selected, in quite 
so’ comprehensive a manner. The lighter compositions 
and preludes of Bach should also he studied, in order 
to prepare the way for the greater Bach that is to fol¬ 
low. A student's education should be a comprehensive 
matter, and will of course vary with talent and purposes 
of the pupil. A person who only desires to use his 
or her music as a drawing-room accomplishment, or a 
personal satisfaction, will of course receive different 
treatment from one who is preparing to teach and 
wishes to be ready to take care of every and all kinds 
of ability with which he may come in touch. 


“1. Cun I inquire a good technic through self- 
study, having already mastered it up to the fourth 
ami firth grade? 

‘•2. Would Philipp's complete works tin technic 
prove adequate for such au undertaking'''’ 

K. D. H. 

There is no reason why you should not be able to 
develop a fine technic under your own instruction if, 
a very important factor, you can avoid accumulating 
bad habits. The majority of students have to be 
watched very closely, the same faults pointed out over 
and over again, the same points dwelled upon some¬ 
times for weeks before they are understood, and even 
then fall into bad ways when left alone. The point is, 
are you already a thorough master of your subject, so 
as to be able to teach yourself? Simply working up 
exercises and eludes is only a small part of the 
battle. There are a great many varieties of touch 
which need to he thoroughly understood, and their 
many modes of application. You will be much wiser 
to secure a good leacher if ii is possible. If not it 
shows commendable spirit on your part to endeavor 
to reach the desired goal by means of self-instruction. 
A man in a western town was boasting that he was a 
self-made man. whereat a bystander hazarded the re¬ 
mark that he had made a had job of himself. Be 
careful that you do not get in the same predicament. 

2. Philipp’s system of technic is most excellent, but 
contains little detailed explanation of band and finger 
positions and motions for the various kinds of touch. 
Mason’s "Touch and Technic” in four volumes, and 
Cooke's “Mastering the Scales and Arpeggios” will be 
invaluable to you under present conditions. 


we*k Huger* 1 . They are rapid reader* and 
xeellent time, hut In striking a triad nearly 
» one of the note* fnflx to sonnd. Table ex- 
i do not seem to strengthen the fingers, 
would ;cu advise?" L. x. 

Place the hand on the keyboard and press down the 
three keys forming (he triad. Ho'd two of the keys 
down and repeat the other eight times very si w'y, 
raising finger high and striking with emphasis Prac¬ 
tice this on various pns : tions of the triad so that all 
the fingers get sonic of the drill. Then hold one fing?r 
down and practice in same manner, striking with two 
fingers at a time. Make sure that ti e hand docs no' 
stiffen in this exercise. Then practice the same ch rds. 
striking all three notes at once, w th the down and 
tip-arm touches. Do not practice long at a time on 
these, but do them several times e~ch day. It will 
probably require a month before you can perceive sub¬ 
stantial and permanent resul's. R-mem1»er. however, 
that if you allow the muscles to stiffen in so-called 
"s*ock” exercises, you will cause more harm th in good. 

If the hand is of good s ; ze. and the pupil sufficiently 
advanced, you can add the dim nished seventh chord 
to this and practice in same manner. Place the fingers 
on C. E flat, F sharp, A, and C. In tHs chord each 
finger has a key. Form various exercises on this hold 
ing down one, two, three and four fingers, as the case 
may be. There is no end to the exercises you can form 
from this if you will exercis - a 1't‘le tngenuhy. Philipp 
has written an entire manual on it containing several 
hundred exercises. 

If the pupils you mention are constitutionally weak 
and physically small, it may he necessary to wait until 
they httild up from this standpoint before very sub¬ 
stantial results may be hoped for 




The Impromptus of Schubert are among the most 
charming of his pianoforte compositions. Several of 
them are exceedingly popular. Among these,, the Im¬ 
promptu Op. 90, No. 2 is one of the most valuable for 
teaching purposes. This number serves to demon¬ 
strate how an apparently commonplace technical 
figure may be made into real music in the hands of a 
great master. The figure in triplets is handled with 
consummate skill and the harmonic background is rich 
and effective. In the section in B-minor the harmonies 
are bold and rich, some of them being quite in the 
modern manner. This Impromptu must be played with 
the utmost delicacy and evenness. It is real piano 
music, suited to the genus of the instrument. We 
would class this in the seventh grade. 


The term Impromptu when applied to a waltz move¬ 
ment indicates that the composer has allowed himself 
considerable freedom both as to form and content. A 
waltz of this type will always be rendered in a some¬ 
what capricious manner, in keeping with the style in 
which it is written. The False Impromptu by Mr. 
Christiani is a well written number with bold and con¬ 
trasted themes. The first theme is sonorous in char¬ 
acter, with harmonies somewhat in the manner of 
Schumann. The middle section is of more lyric char¬ 
acter. requiring the singing tone and some attention 
to detail in interpretation, the notes of the theme in 
some places being transferred from one hand to the 
other. This will make an effective number for recital 
use in fifth-grade work. 


Henri Kowalski was born in Paris in 1841. After 
studying with Marmontel and Reber he became a con¬ 
cert pianist of note. His compositions are chiefly 
drawing room pieces of the better class, brilliant but 
refined. One of his most popular pieces is the con¬ 
cert waltz known as Roses de Bohcme. This is a very 
showy number and it is most effective when played in 
rather strict time, well accented and at a lively rate 
of speed. Although it will require nimble fingers, 
nevertheless it lies well under the hand throughout, 
so that it is really not as difficult as it sounds when 
well played. The sustained dotted half notes occurring 
in the repetition of the principle theme are intended to 
be sounded out like a horn passage. These tones should 
be played with considerable force and the pedal will 
sustain them after the key has been released. This is 
one of the best fifth-grade pieces of its type. 


A jolly number having two well contrasted sections. 
The first section is in the rhythm of a modern gavotte 
while the middle section is a modified mazurka rhythm. 
Mr. George S. Schuler is a rising young American com¬ 
poser whose piano composition entitled Fortuuata was 
very well received upon its appearance in The Etude 
in April, 1912. The Jester is an excellent third-grade 
piece, either for teaching or recital purposes. 


Mr. Robert Russell Bennett is a young American com¬ 
poser who has appeared but once before in our music 
pages. His Echoes of Palermo is in the rhythm of a 
Sicilienne. This term is usually applied to pieces writ¬ 
ten six-eighth or twelve-eighth time, in the style of 
certain graceful pastoral dances, originating among the 
Sicilian peasants. One of the main points to be ob¬ 
served in playing such pieces is to sustain the rhythm 
of the accompaniment steadily,throughout. Against this 
accompaniment the themes must be brought out with 
song-like effect. For advanced third-grade players. 



This is the second appearance of Mr. Hubbard Harris 
in our Etude pages. The Song of the Spinning Wheel 
is from a set by Mr. Harris, recently published. It is 
a very cleverly constructed little number which in ad¬ 

dition to its musical attractions, has real technical 
value as a study piece. Pieces of this type, imitating 
the characteristic whirr of the spinning wheel, must 
be played with almost automatic precision in order to 
obtain the best effect; a light and delicate touch should 
be used throughout. We would class this number in 
the early third grade. 


Summer Frolic, Mrs. Evans’ latest composition, is a 
dainty and capricious intermesso. It will be most 
effective when played chiefly with a light staccato touch 
with the exception of the middle section in which the 
passages in thirds will demand a legato touch. This 
number lies in the early third grade. 



Under the Orange Blossom is a tuneful little waltz 
which will prove useful either for teaching purposes, 
for home amusement or for dancing. It has all the 
good points of the modern waltz and it is rather easy 
to play, lying well under the hands. It is suitable for 
an advanced second-grade player, one about ready for 
thira-grade work. 

Mr. George L. Spaulding is well known to our read¬ 
ers as a successful American composer of teaching 
pieces. His work is always bright and entertaining. 
After the Rain is one of his recent compositions. It 
is easy to play hut the phrasing will require some atten¬ 
tion. Just right for an advanced second-grade student. 


Mr. Bert R. Anthony, is an American composer whose 
teaching pieces are much liked. Cunning Cupid is a 
stirring little march movement which has all the quali¬ 
ties usually found in marches written in much larger 
form. It should be played in the true military style, 
imitating the effect of a band. Second grade. 


This is another second-grade piece, rather easier than 
the preceding one. It is a very good example of the 
polka rhythm and it will prove effective for elementary 
recital work. 

Theodore Kullak (1818-1882) was a famous pianist 
and teacher who in turn developed many famous pupils. 
As a composer his attention was directed chiefly to 
pianoforte studies and teaching pieces of all grades. 
Once Upon a Time is taken from a set written for 
young students. It is a tuneful little number, beauti¬ 
fully harmonized, written in classic vein. Second grade. 


The False Caprice by the late Mr. Rathbun has proven 
one of his most popular numbers. As arranged for four 
hands it is exceedingly effective and will make a brilliant 
number for recital playing. Third or fourth grade. 


An effective and playable arrangement of one of the 
most famous numbers in grand opera. The really great 
melodies never lose their charm. Violin students will 
enjoy this number. 


Reminding us somewhat of the offertoires of Batiste 
and \\ ely, Mr. Rockwell’s Festal Postludc nevertheless 
has merit and originality of its own. It will appeal to 
organists as a practical number for church use It is 
remarkably brilliant and imposing for a piece so easy 
to play. The registration will require attention - also 
the execution of the staccato double-thirds of the middle 


Mr. Alfred Wooer’s Flozver Maiden was awarded the 
second prize in the last Etude contest in Class VI 
(Nature Songs). It is a graceful number, with the 
accompaniment in the characteristic Spanish Bolero 
rhythm. A portrait and sketch of Mr. Wooler will be 
found in another column. 

J air Lily, by F. M Lillibridge. is an expressive, sing¬ 
able number, with a fine climax, in the style of a German 

Alfred Wooler was born at Shipley, Yorkshire, Eng¬ 
land, May 11, 1867, but he has been in America so long 
that many have always looked upon him as an American. 
At the age of eight he was a boy soprano and since then 
music has been his life study. He studied singing and 
theory with some leading English teachers, later devel¬ 
oping a tenor voice and becoming a soloist. He came 
to America in 1891 and studied with prominent teachers 
in New York. In Scranton, Pa., he met with large suc¬ 
cess as a tenor soloist and as a conductor of choral 
societies. Dr. Wooler taught harmony at the Harden- 
burgh School of Music and the Scranton Conservatory. 
The best part of his theoretical training was under Dr. 
Hugh A. Clarke, of the University of Pennsylvania- He 
has passed the examinations leading to the degrees of 
Bachelor of Music and Doctor of Music at the University 
of the State of New York. Dr. Wooler has been the 
winner of many prizes for competitions and has pub¬ 
lished many works (over one hundred). His song in 
this issue of The Etude won a prize in our prize contest 
of last year. 


“I bear my ideas very long with me in my brain 
ere I attempt to write them down, and I can depend 
on my memory that I never forget a phrase that has 
taken hold of my mind. Sometimes I change some 
parts, I entirely condemn others, and then I try again 
until I think I have found the right way. with which 
I am at last satisfied myself. But then begins in my 
head the working out in width, in breadth, and 
height, without ever losing my hold on the fundamen¬ 
tal idea, which grows and grows and increases unt' 
the whole picture stands complete before ray ram 5 

eye—then I need only sit down and write it ou • 

which, once begun, I do quickly and steadily, as 
may find time to do it; because I usually work a 
different things at the same time, but, as I told yon. 
without ever confusing one with the other. 

“Perhaps you may ask, where do I take my • c 
from ? That is more than I can say. The ideas com • 
and there they are; sometimes so palpable that l a • 

I can put my hands upon them while I am ^ 
in the meadows or in the forest, at sunrise, or w ’ 

I lie sleepless in bed, as the moods may seize ■ 
The inspiration with a poet would come m wo 

whereas to me it comes in tones that sing. s 

storm or sigh sweetly, until at last they take Q 
form in notes; then when I have written them 
I become calm again, and look at my work, an 
it and mend it until I am satisfied .”—Extracted T 
Louis Engel’s From Handel to Halle 

“Rhythm and Harmony make the deepest imP r ,j ^ 
upon the soul and hold it in the firmest grasp °t 
forms of expression.”— Plato. 


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Copyright 1913 by Theo. Presser Co. 

Copyright 1912 by Theo.Presser Co. 





Words by Julius Sturm 

English version by Edward M. Taber p. M. LILLEBRIDGE, Op ]f 





dreamers, seers and mystics in music. 


Jfiss Beatrice Harraden has called music the most 
beautiful language in the world. Miss Harraden is 
right. Music does serve the purpose of a language; it 
conveys ideas and emotions, it stirs the imagination. 
Yet this language so perfect in many respects lacks one 
thing to make it complete, viz., a vocabulary. No 
great composer has ever turned his hand to the lexi¬ 
cography of sound. Some composers, it is true, adopt¬ 
ing a programme have told us what their compositions 
were supposed to mean, yet aside from the programme 
phrase, musical works, in general, are indefinite and 
vague. The average individual forms a meaning of 
his own. At that he seldom gets beyond merely calling 
names. A piece may be a boat song; a stirring march 
or a dirge, but the meaning in details, which is so 
essential to poetry and prose, he has to construct by 
himself out of his imagination or overlook it entirely. 
Huneker says: “The most profound truths, the most 
blasphemous things, the most terrible ideas may be 
incorporated within the walls of a symphony and the 
police be none the wiser.” 


Psychologists tell us there is a subliminal self, a 
psychic personality in every human being capable of 
thinking thoughts which are foreign to the ordinary 
intelligence. In men of genius it often absorbs prac¬ 
tically the whole brain power. Music makes a particu¬ 
larly strong appeal to this psychic intelligence, the ordi¬ 
nary reason alone is not sufficient for musical apprecia¬ 
tion, something more is necessary, and this we find in 
the sub-conscious self whose activity inclines towards 
abstraction and ecstasy. A bigger word for the same 
meaning would be—mysticism. Under the exercise of 
this latent faculty routine thoughts and feelings vanish; 
we are capable for the time being of seeing and hear¬ 
ing things which do not resemble realities any more 
than heaven can resemble earth. 

But the mystical tendencies in the average mind are 
very fleeting in comparison with what is to be found 
in the real mystic. A mystic is a person who possesses 
superior power to see things which others learn only 
through experience; he is a dreamer, but a seer as well; 
somewhat of a prophet and always a visionary. His 
imagination never rests; the world and its people 
interest him only mildly, except when he is striving for 
meanings and relationships to clear up the prevailing 
mystery. For to a mystic all things are mysterious. 
Trees and grass and flowers are not what they seem; 
•hey must have a deeper meaning and a greater im¬ 
portance than what they possess as natural objects. 
Some years ago Maeterlinck wrote an essay on " The 
Intelligence of the Flowers.” With delightful sympathy 
mid intuition he proceeded to show that flowers feel 
pleasure and pain, that they act under volition, that 
•hey understand the existence of others belonging to 
•heir same order. 

Mysticism as a force is not so much intellectual as 
aesthetic. Art owes it more than philosophy. The genius 
of Maeterlinck is undoubtedly at its basis, thoroughly 
speculative and metaphysical, the artistic impulse of the 
man however has given a charm to what the world 
would otherwise have found very uninteresting. The 
English poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti is another example. 
«>s Blessed Damozcl is a poem you cannot by any 
sort of casuistry bring into anv consistent or rational 
ideal, yet it is a perfect example of that exquisite and 
dehcate beauty which we look for in the highest forms 
of art 


In the field of music, mysticism has exerted as great 
an influence as in literature. There never was a more 
™ystical human being than Wagner. From his youthfu. 
ays, when he distracted his harmony teacher by talk- 
"i? a ^°ut the “personality of the notes,” Wagner rev- 
f , e< ^ ' n all kinds of musical symbolism. He had no 
‘a'ent for the strict forms, although we are told that 
« an early age he knew his Beethoven thoroughly. His 
_I st °Pcras do not indicate the real trend of his mind, 
‘be real Wagner appears for the first time in Tann- 
auser. There we begin to see the literalness of Jus 
m usical symbolism and the mystical background which 
''as to form the basis of many of his operas. That 
'Vagner should have been attracted to the mythology 
o northern Europe is not strange when we consider 
e gigantic character of his imagination and the wealti 
0 w °nderful things to be found in these tales. M agner 

always tarried long over the supernatural and the per¬ 
verse. Then there is no end in these Norse stories to 
magic gardens, magic cups, magic potions, magic islands, 
apples, etc., besides wicked gods and death-dealing mon¬ 
sters of terrible ferocity. 

But aside from the superhuman and the monstrous, 
what intoxicated Wagner’s imagination most \va« 
woman. Woman appeared to him in a truly mystical 
aspect, i. e., as a mystery. He is never done telling 
of the marvelous fascination which will lure a man to 
ruin; nor does he forget to show the woman of pure 
character. Indeed, morally speaking, the salvation of 
his operatic stories lies in his teaching that through the 
influence of woman man can hope to rise to better 


, Wagner’s work was one of liberation, he did not tear 
down Beethoven or Bath; he built an entirely new art 
work in which the laws of the strictly classical had 
no application. Mystical as are his themes, they are no 
more removed from the ordinary current than the forms 
through which he expressed himself. In this great work 
of broadening the intent of music he had a fellow- 
laborer, although a worker along different lines. This 
was Liszt. No one can view Liszt’s life without seeing 
the strong musical bent throughout, and his compo¬ 
sitions betray it even more so. Liszt was romantic 
composer, brilliant pianist, aristocratic courtier and mys¬ 
tic combined. Few men in any line of work have shown 
the same breadth and power. Goethe is, perhaps, the 
nearest approach. He may have posed more or less, 
yet we cannot call him a poseur. Religion he accepted 
for his daily guide, although it is more than likely he 
worshiped the atmosphere of religion rather more than 
believed in its creeds. 

That the religious ideal appealed to him is shown by 
his compositions. In the Berg symphony, written 1849, 
which was designed to contrast the ways of men and 
nature, a religious motive is used towards the end to 
effect peace for man’s discontent. For his eighth sym¬ 
phonic poem, the Heroide Funebre. Liszt wrote a pref 
ace in which he says: “Everything may change in hu¬ 
man societies, manners and cult, laws and ideas, sorrow 
remains, always the one and the same: ... It is for 
art to throw its transfiguring veil over the tomb of the 
brave—to encircle with its golden halo the dead and the 
dying, in order that they may be envied by the living.’ 
Note that transfiguring veil; it perfectly expresses the 
mystical attitude in its endeavor to raise things above 
a mere earthly significance. Liszt wrote a symphony- 
after Dante’s Dkdna Commedia and for the piano, a 
Dance of Death. His Masses and Psalms, just now 
coming into their own. were as much a manifestation of 
his own nature as of his association with the church. 
This is indeed enough to show the peculiar predilec¬ 
tion which Liszt had for religious subjects. It only 
remains to note the fact that he took holy orders ami 
wore his abbe’s garments quite as if bang an aWx: 
were his real profession. 


One subject there is which amounts almost to an ob- 
■ssion with a mystic. That is death. Death as tin 
real Mystery must naturally fascinate minds in wnom 
1 things seem mysterious. Only recently Maeterlinck 
1S written an entire volume on the theme and pre- 
ously in The Intruder he gave it a dramatic scum, 
he strong motives in Wagner’s operas arc certainly 
,ve and death. Wagner’s own words betray the cen¬ 
tring power which these two mighty fon»s had over 
is mind. In his prelude to Tristan and Isolde he says. 
Now there is no end to the yearning, the longing, the 
St and the misery of love. World might fame 
jlendor. honor, knighthood, truth and friendship all 
anish like a baseless dream. « n, l TJ y 

ives- desire, desire unquestionable, and ever insniy 
■anifested longing, thirst and > e f rn, "f. v .^ nC " de'en 
emption-death. the sinking into oblivion, the sleep 

SSeL into that wondrous natal™ 

m?o! n,* 9 .'"C^. Pnni s.y. * 5« 

s gain with the idea of attaining a conquest over death. 

uf.he mystic W«~r /<»«'; » £« 

riost uninviting aspect death *o h - * • 

hSXS The Siian conception 
[e m y^^ C ^c^e of voluptuous pleasure. 

„nt would seem £ rcasonc d beliefs. There is 

Mysticism seldom gives u» 

always the halo of unreality which disarms the intelli¬ 
gence and appeals lo the higher emotional centers. No 
one would think of using Parsifal with its jumble c f 
Christianity, Buddhism and mediaeval romance for a re¬ 
ligious guide. However, the crucible of all these ele¬ 
ments stirred Wagner’s imagination and on it he created 
a great art work, the greatest in fact ever written 
around a mystical conception. 



The best way in which to make a start in any kind 
of enter; rise is to make a few well-founded plans and 
then go directly at the work in hand in the most en¬ 
thusiastic manner possible. Many young women who 
have had excellent opportunities are at a loss to know 
how to go alxvut securing a teaching practice. Secure 
two bright, talented young pupils, if you have to go 
into the highways and hedges to find them; arouse in 
them enthusiasm for their work: see to it that they 
make progress, and pupils will flock to you without 
the asking. 

“But what shall the teacher do with these two bright, 
talented pupils,” it is asked, “to bring them to a high 
degree of excellence; how shall they be exploited, and 
what course must lie taken to make them stand out as 
models in a community?” 

There is but one way and that is the right way, 
which is to use the piano as a means of musical edu¬ 
cation. The high purpose of this is to awaken the in¬ 
telligence. enlarge the understanding, quicken the per¬ 
ceptions, clarify and control the emotions, and cultivate 
the taste. 

A good beginning in kindling the child’s interest is 
to tell him as much as lie can grasp of the character 
and history of the piano and mode of manipulating it. 
Show the hammers in action and illustrate how they 
can he put into operation to produce tone in an infi¬ 
nite variety of romances, in conformity with the name 

Thus the pupil will be readily prepared to consider 
how he must lie seated at the instrument to gain free¬ 
dom of arms and hands; how the hands must be place,! 
on the keyboard and how the muscles must lie trained 
to attain the desired results. He will easily learn that 
the artistic hand combines elasticity and strength, anil 
lie will enjoy the suggestion of Dr. Adolph Kullak 
that the arm is the branch on which the fingers flutter 
like leaves while held so firmly they cannot leave the 

By teacher and pupil Schumann’s words should be 
'kept in mind; that to be musical is to have music not 
in the fingers only, lmt in the head and the heart. So 
from the outset all the faculties should be brought into 
play, and it should lie rcnu-mltcrcd that it is the man 
or woman behind the art that makes the art great. 

The pupil should 1c led to realize the significance 
of tone, tlie relations of one tone to another, and the 
oneness of the note on the printed page, the piano key 
for which it calls and the tone produced by touching 
the latter. A child may be guided to chase a pure 
tone as eagerly as lie would a butterfly or a ball. If 
Itis rhythmic sense and his acquaintance with theory 
and harmony be cultivated, be will lie fascinated with 
every figure and form presented to him. Teach him 
to conquer each difficulty before he reaches another, to 
do everything artistically from the beginning, and to 
recognize his own mistakes without haying his self- 
reliance continually hampered by corrections from the 
teacher, am! he will gain a solid foundation. To open 
his eves to the dimity of music, he should be told, lit- 
tie by little, its wonderful story. Later, classes may be 
formed for advanced studies in theory, harmony, coun¬ 
terpoint. etc., and history. . . , , 

Even though parents, ambitious for prompt, showy 
results, niav offer occasional opposition to quiet, steady 
progress, it is in the power of the teacher to create an 
enthusiasm for the right way. Most unspoiled listen¬ 
ers feel, if they do not know, the difference lietwecn a 
harsh tone and a musical one, and there arc few par¬ 
ents who will not lie pleased, if cause and effect be 
properly explained to them, to have their children play 
with correct phrasing, rhythmic movement and intona- 

You cannot prevent people from liking undesirable 
music by telling them that they ought not to like it. 
Give them half a chance to hear some Wttcr mus^ 
and if they arc not too set in their ways they will 
soon treat the trashy music to what Rnrke describes 
as “a wise and salutary neglect ” 





[Kditor's Note.— Mr. Taylor has spi 
piano tuner ami regulator. The present 
to present that side of the Instrument s< 
thus help tile music student and the t< 
care of the piano itself.] 

an attempt 
take better 

When, after long years of experiment, the clavichord 
and harpsichord were evolved from the ancient harp, 
the man whose genius had accomplished so much was 
showered with favors from royal hands. Yet how in¬ 
significant the poor little instruments of those days 
seem at this time when nearly every home boasts of a 
modern piano. Compared with the modern grand piano, 
the little Cristofori instrument which anyone may see 
at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York seems 
like a toy. It is natural that those who have to do 
with the interpretative side of pianoforte music should 
concern themselves solely with the part of the instru¬ 
ment with which they come directly in contact. Never¬ 
theless, it is also true that if some of our students and 
teachers might do well to learn much of the interior 
construction of the piano and then make their own de¬ 
ductions regarding certain theories of interpretation 
and their effectiveness in actual playing. 

It would also be a fine thing if the general public 
knew something of the difficulties which beset the path 
of the tuner. It may surprise some Etude readers to 
learn that it is impossible to tune a piano perfectly true. 
That is, no piano is ever tuned scientifically right. The 
best tuner in the world is obliged to tune the instru¬ 
ment “untrue.” “What nonsense!” many a player will 
exclaim. “I have played upon many pianos that were 
tuned perfectly true.” This misapprehension is due to 
ignorance of the physical facts of the case. Any physi¬ 
cist can easily show you why the relative vibrations 
of the strings of the pianoforte, as now in use with 
the conventional keyboard, do not admit of the various 
chords being tuned perfectly true. As most all musi¬ 
cians know, pur keyboard represents a compromise in 
which, for instance, some notes are represented as 
being the same whereas scientifically they are not. A 
flat and G sharp when tuned scientifically are slightly 
different in pitch. Yet, both of these notes are sounded 
on the keyboard by the use of the same key. Any book 
on physics will give a full statement of this fact. It 
is this very item of difference which places the tuner’s 
work among the arts. He has a latitude of a few vibra¬ 
tions in which to work and his judgment, taste and 
sense of hearing play an important part in tuning the 
instrument successfully. 

I f the tuner were to attempt to tune the various tones 
forming a chord which employed G sharp, for instance, 
perfectly true, the G sharp would sound out of tune 
if it were employed in forming a chord which required 
A flat. These differences make it necessary for the 
tuner so to “temper” the scale as to make the tones 
sound perfectly in tune to an educated ear. In doing 
this he will be compelled to tune all notes untrue to 
a certain extent. “Tempering” the scale in this way is 
no easy matter. The tuner is solely dependent on his 
ear for accuracy, and he is apt to become tired, no 
matter how skillful he may be in other ways. In fact, 
it makes a great difference to a tuner’s work whether he 
is tuning the first or the sixth piano of the day. He 
will succeed much less perfectly with the last than with 
the first, merely because his ear is fatigued and is not so 
quick to detect slight errors of intonation. 

The tuner has other and less theoretical difficultes 
to contend with. He begins his work usually by ex¬ 
amining the instrument upon which he is engaged. He 
must find out whether or not it is tuned up to concert 
pitch, and how the bass and treble stand in relation to 
each other. In some instruments it will be found that 
the piano becomes dull and low in pitch, losing in brill¬ 
iancy of tone every time it is tuned. In such cases, when 
the instrument is for some special occasion brought up 
to concert pitch, the strings are apt to snap or even a 
crack may develop in the sound-board or some other 
part of the frame, much to the owner’s disgust. 

With instruments of this kind the tuner has to choose 
between retaining the low pitch—even reducing it to 
still lower pitch—or risking the raising of the pitch to 
the proper degree. He generally chooses the first as 
the lesser of the evils, for two reasons: First, because 
a considerable amount of work is entailed which is not 
specially paid for when the pitch is raised, because, as 
a rule, tuning is not paid for according to the length of 
time expended; secondly, an instrument raised in pitch 
keeps tune a much shorter time, because the tension 
thrown on the strings is greater than that which they 
have been accustomed to bear. 


Let your piano be tuned oftener, and you will have 
better instruments. Many owners of pianos, from false 
motives of economy, make a serious mistake when they 
allow their instruments to be unattended until they are 
so wretchedly out of tune as to be unplayable. The 
best constructed piano will not remain in tune if it has 
been allowed to go untuned for too long. If it is brought 
up to concert pitch it will get out of tune almost as soon 
as the tuner’s back is turned. 

But we have left our tuner at the first stages of his 
work. Let us return to him. Having examined the in¬ 
strument, and decided what is required of him, he first 
tunes the center of the keyboard as true as he can. The 
chief object to be sought is that all chords within the 
tempered portion shall be equally true, and at the same 
time equally untrue. No tone should be prominently 
heard, and the equalization of the temperament should 
be the same throughout. This is exacting work and re¬ 
quires the whole energies of the tuner, who must not 
allow his attentions to be distracted for a moment. 
Having tuned the center of the piano, he proceeds to 
use that as a basis for the regulation of the rest of the 
instrument, so “tempering” the scale that the extreme 
bass and treble are sufficiently in tune with each other 
and with the center to pass muster. To do this, the en¬ 
tire action of the tuner’s brain must be concentrated 
upon quickness of hearing and distinguishing between 
the slightest difference of sound. A tuner may have 
tuned a thousand pianos, and yet he will not succeed 
with any two alike. 

There are comparatively few tuners who understand 
action and tone regulating—two of the most precise 
operations known to piano construction. As there are 
over five thousand parts in an upright action and 
seventy-five hundred parts in a grand action it will 
readily be seen that the work cannot be properly done 
by a tuner who has not spent considerable time in a 
piano factory as an action regulator. 

A tone regulator goes into a factory as a tuner and 
may only enter the higher departments of his craft 
after thoroughly mastering the art of tuning. Some¬ 
times this necessitates at least five years of employment. 
These men are all high-salaried, and every piano that 
leaves a factory passes muster before its head tone reg¬ 
ulator, or “head voicer,” as he is commonly called. 
This position is one to which very few are fitted by 
natural equipment and training. Is it not then folly to 
trust a costly instrument to the mercies of one who has 
not for years toiled in a factory, working at piano 
construction ? 

Hammer treatment is another important factor in 
piano regulating, not only in shaping them aright, but 
in “voicing” them—placing them in striking position. 
This work should only be entrusted to the most ex¬ 
perienced mechanics. The same can be said of other 
parts of the action: a piano is surprisingly sensitive to 
the slightest variation in the adjustment of any of its 
parts, and the right kind of attention at reasonably fre¬ 
quent intervals will do wonders to preserve the piano 
at its highest level of excellence. 

As there is a great deal of felt used in the piano, it 
may not be amiss to say a few words in regard to 
that tiny pest, the larva of the moth miller, scientific- 
cally known as the Phatama of Linnaeus. Camphor, 
red pepper, moth balls and tobacco are supposed to 
destroy these pests. They do no!. The writer has fre¬ 
quently found that in pianos containing these “preven-. 
fives” the moth has destroyed the felt that controls the’ 
momentum of action, thereby producing unevenness of 
touch and harsh, unequal tone. The piano should be 
taken apart and thoroughly cleaned at least once every 
eighteen months. The only purpose moth balls and sim¬ 
ilar preventives can serve is to keep moths awav—the 
insects do not like the odor. The most effective way, 
however, to keep a piano so that it will do itself and 
its owner justice, is to take good care of it, and have it 
tuned and regulated frequently by a man who thor¬ 
oughly understands the instrument and its construction. 

The less civilized races at all times have had a strong 
bent for imitation. The aborigines of Australia have a 
dance in which they imitate the movements of the 
Kangaroo. The North American Indians have an Eagle 
Dance, a Bear Dance, and a Dog Dance. The natives of 
Kamschatka have a dance in which they cleverly imitate 
not only the attitudes and tricks of the Bear but its 
voice. The Aleutian Islanders have a representation 
in which a hunter shoots a bird, and afterwards cries 
from grief at having killed it; when suddenly the bird 
revives and changes into a beautiful woman, and all 
ends happily. 


of the ephemeral rag-time ditty,” there are dozenD 
hidden tunes. In such tiny “melodylets ” freouli 
only two or three notes in length, one may find do»h 
of poetic charm, unguessed by the careless, sunerS 
student. dl 

When listening to some great virtuoso possess 
with a broad musical mind, as well as a bunch of art 
digits. 1 have recognized, at times with amazement 
exquisite touches of feeling, which almost lifted me out 
of my seat. Well, you say, if these little melodies are 
hidden among the middle voices, or in the subtle chord 
progressions, or in the decorative roulades why did not 
the composer indicate their importance? Why do not 
composers write out fully just how they wish their 
music to be interpreted. There are two reasons for 
this: first, even were it impossible there would be 
more expression marks than notes; and second, it would 
do away with the personal equation of the performer. 
Further, we all know that no two actors present a 
Shakespearian role, say Hamlet, exactly in the same 
manner. In the comparing and criticizing of these 
minutiae which make the distinguishing differences in 
interpretations we find a most keen and precious de¬ 
light. Precisely the same is the case in musical appre¬ 
ciation and enjoyment. 

One of the great advantages of the piano is its sensi¬ 
tiveness to accent and nuance. The individual player, 
by a deft use of pressure, attack, and the like, can 
utter little bits of melody, which enliven the whole, 
and kill monotony like ripples that sparkle o 
surface of a stream. 

Let me vary the simile, and make you a picture. 
Yonder stands an apple tree in full bloom. Thickly 
scattered among its myriad green leaves, you see hosts 
of white blossoms. These blossoms are each a tiny 
cup of the incense that happy spring breathes forth in 
thanks to God for her creation. Ever and again she 
sends one of her hand-maidens, the breezes, to caress 
the tree and to flow through its labyrinth of leaves and 
blossoms. No matter though the blossom be not con¬ 
spicuously placed on the outer dome of the tree, its 
burden of delicious fragrance is found and extracted 
by the messenger breeze. So the ethereal life of the 
tree is wafted abroad, and the world is granted one 
of its most fascinating charms. 

These tiny bits of melody concealed among the 
chord-progressions, the inner voices or the roulades are 
such blossoms of the composer's heart. Your fingers, 
your ear, your brain and your heart must find and utter 
them if you are to impart to your music its full legiti¬ 
mate charm. I have often heard piano playing which 
made me wonder at the popularity of this instrument, 
and almost side with its detractors, but, again I have 
heard music from real artists which intoxicated me 
with the wine of the spirit, till the world of stupid 
realities vanished. 

When you have hit all the notes, and followed ever 
so conscientiously the printed guide posts of expression 
you are still on the surface of the music. Penetrate 
into its arcana and reveal them to us when you venture 
to play to us. 



Efficient fundamental training develops a P(’'' er ^ 
discrimination in the child, not only in regard o 
own playing and that of others, hut also to the ‘ 
in which he is taught. If a child has had good t ^ 
mental training for a long enough period, he 
can tell very quickly, if a change is made, whe 
teaching is good or had. , 

From this first application others will he I” 3 ar iplic<l 
the power of discrimination will grow and be 
in many directions. The children soon devc ^-^t 
interested and appreciative audiences f°f ° U ^ a nil» r 
opera companies, orchestras, choral societies. , c 
music organizations, besides becoming so,0lS . f r( *i 
teachers themselves. With good taste incu^teate ^ 
the drsf lesson they can soon be taught to )<’ 
understand good works. With their symP®' 
musicians will be encouraged to present wor s ^ 
they have long desired to have given, hut * ^ w 

tated because they.lacked an appreciative a" 
support them financially and aesthetically- 

the etude 


Department for Singers 

Conducted by Eminent Vocal Teachers 
Editor for September 


About a year and a half ago I had the 
pleasure of contributing to The Etude 
an article on the subject of classifying 
voices. The article is not by me now as 
1 write, but my impression is that I wrote 
particularly about those voices that are 
neither high nor low, and yet have.some 
characteristics of both. A number of ex¬ 
periences since that article appeared 
have convinced me more than ever that it 
is the easiest thing in the world to go 
astray in this matter, and that young 
teachers, especially, should use great care 
in insisting on a certain classification 
when there are decided chances of a doubt. 
These voices are not professional voices, 
and in either register are more or less 
incompetent. The high notes are not 
good enough or easy enough, and the 
low ones are too weak. It is usually im¬ 
possible to strengthen the lower n-t.-s 
enough for professional purposes, and it 
is natural to try to develop the high voice 
for purely commercial reasons. This 
often results in such a sad disappoint¬ 
ment to the pupil that it is quite a seri¬ 
ous matter especially to those who have 
little money to spare. 

The young teacher or the old one 
for that matter, should not be so con¬ 
sumed with his own importance that he 
should hesitate to express a doubt. 
These cock-sure people are by no means 
the most competent. At the risk of be-’ 
ing personal, let me relate one or two ex¬ 
periences. One was a man who had tried 
to sing tenor for years without any sue-- 
cess. He came to me for some lessons, 
and I, too, tried to make him sing tenor. 
After some weeks of unsuccessful results 
I tried experiments to find out his lower 
voice. To my surprise, he gave cut after 
a few trials an excellent low A. The 
next lesson the low notes were much bet¬ 
ter, and I said to him, "You are a bari¬ 
tone and not a tenor, and that is where 
Jour difficulty lies.” I cut off the stri¬ 
dent high notes, and he soon developed 
an excellent low F and even E to his own 
great satisfaction. 

Another case: A lady came to me for 
some lessons, and I frankly told her that 
she did not have a professional voice. 
She had studied with the best American 
masters, and always as a soprano. The 
upper notes were not agreeable, and 
after a few weeks I made up my mind 
that she would develop a low voice if the 
strain of the upper notes were entirely 
removed. She is now singing entirely 
mezzo-soprano repertoire, and the case 
and comfort of her singing gives her the 
greatest delight. 

mistaken classification. 
Another case which was most interest- 
lr L’ : A pupil came to me that had al¬ 
ways sang soprano, and after a few 
weeks wrote me a note saying that she 
believed she had a low voice. I had a 
talk with her and told her I thought she 
was wrong, but if she wished to try I 
would do my best to develop a low voice 
to S£ e what could lie done. It turned 
out that she was right and I was wrong. 
he developed a charming low voice, and 

has occupied a church position for some 
years. In the beginning she showed no 
signs whatever of the mezzo-soprano 

One more case: I gave a lady a few 
lessons once, and classed her voice as a 
high mezzo-soprano after a few weeks’ 
trial. She then went to Europe for two 
years or more, where she was trained as 
a lyric soprano under one of the most 
celebrated masters. When she came 
home she sang for me, and her voice to 
my ears was just what I told her—a 
high mezzo-soprano (a lyric mezzo), and 
her upper notes were impossible. Two 
years of careful training had not been 
able to misclass the voice. 

Just one more: I trained a beautiful 
bass voice for two years, and he then 
went to Europe. He sang the runs in 
file Messiah with an extraordinary facil¬ 
ity. After coaching some time he went 
to one of the most celebrated teachers in 
the world and paid for ten lessons in ad¬ 
vance. At the second lesson the master 
said, “I have decided to make a lyric 
baritone out of you.” He never went for 
his third lesson. And he is now a beau¬ 
tiful basso profundo but with an extra¬ 
ordinary compass. How anyone could 
misclass this voice I do not understand, 
but it may be of some encouragement to 
the less celebrated teachers to know that 
the high lights grow dim occasionally. 
The only safe way to classify some 
voices is to give them time to slip into 
the tessitura (the natural compass) that 
lies easiest for them. And the teacher 
should not fear to take the pupil into his 
confidence in the matter. If a mistake 
has been made own up frankly, and in 
general you will win the respect of your 
pupils for your honesty. 


F cue were asked what word above all 
other causes the most difficulty for sing¬ 
ers, perhaps the one selected would be 
“registers.” And yet nothing is more 
simple when once the matter is under¬ 
stood. Registers are simply colors in the 
voice which come from the depth or shal- 
lowness of the resonance. When one 
sings deeply (f. r, the low notes) the 
voice must resonate deeply in the chest 
in order to give the necessary color and 
freedom. On the other hand, in the high 
voice there is naturally less depth, and 
the resonance seems to be absent entirely 
j„ the head and face. The old masters 
naturally discovered these facts and gave 
the different parts of the voice the rather 
misleading names of head, medium and 

Ch As rSlS of fact, they are all one 
and the same so far as the “sinking of 
the voice on the hard palate’ is concerned, 
•md if the student commences his 
studies with a competent rnast" hc 
never have any trouble with them. The 
voice is one voice and not three voices 
which are to he united together in some 
mysterious fashion The voice is pro¬ 
duced in one wav from bottom to top. 

only bv disobeying this law that 

correctly with an even scale from top to 
bottom it is necessary to sing in one way. 
One cannot sing one part of the voice 
in one place and two other parts in 
another place, and have a smooth scale, 
however long or faithfully one tries. It 
is manifestly impossible. 

The voice which is set into vibration 
by the breath must strike surely and 
freely on the hard palate and not be inter¬ 
fered with by a rigid or uplifted tongue. 
When this condition obtains, the vacant 
nasal passages will be set into sym¬ 
pathetic vibration in all the high notes to 
such an extent that all the voice seems to 
lie in the head. Hence the name head 

As the voice descends the scale to the 
very lowest notes this fullness of reso¬ 
nance 'descends also until it seems to be in 
the chest. Hence the chest register. As 
a matter of fact, both resonances are 
present all the lime, the one overbalanc¬ 
ing the other to such an extent that it is 
almost oblit:rated. But they are there 
and must be there, or a smooth scale is 
impossible. The even transition from 
one part of the voice to another could 
never be made if these conditions did not 
obtain, and the only way they can he 
brought about is by singing the voice in 
the same place all the time. 


Now there are certain phenomena that 
appear in certain classes of voices that 
need special care, for they seem to he 
specially difficult. The contralto voice, 
for example, almost always presents a 
serious difficulty about E (first line). The 
first tiling the young contralto does when 
she discovers her ownership of a low 
voice is to sing all the low notes as deep 
as possible without regard to the middle 
or high voice. She is soon able to make 
a noise in a choir of forty voices to go 
it alone on the contralto part, for it is 
pretty difficult to drown out this peculiar 
sound. She may even electrify her 
friends in the role of a "female baritone" 
by singing in the chest only and obliter¬ 
ating a middle voice. When she has 
done this a few years she has almost ob¬ 
literated her middle voice, and often 
ruined it beyond redemption. All this 
time she has been singing entirely under 
the larynx, and nothing on earth will 
unite these ghastly mis-sexed sounds with 
the rest of the voice. I have seen high 
soprani* use this voice to such an ex¬ 
tent that they thought themselves to lie 
contraltos. There are no worse sounds in 
the human voice unless it be the male 
altos in the English choirs. When the 

singer has pursued this vicious habit , for 
a few years it is extremely difficult to 
cure. (The only fault that is worse is 
the soprano who has sung frontal voice 
so long that she invariably sharps.) 

To remedy this defect in the low voice 
the singer must entirely eliminate this 
voice that she calls chest voice until the 
middle voice becomes of normal strength, 
and then gradually restore the lower 
notes with the middle voice as its centre. 
As she has formerly sang a mongrel 
chest voice with an entire absence of 
middle voice in the low notes, she must 
now sing the middle voice down to the 
lowest notes, however weak they may lie, 
until she can add the deeper resonance 
without a break. This requires the ut¬ 
most patience and skill, and usually a 
very long time. In many cases, it must 
be frankly owned, it cannot be perfectly 


The lyric soprano voice presents two 
phases that are difficult to combat. One 
is the lack of chest voice, and the other 
the first notes of the high register, which, 
according to the old masters, should com¬ 
mence on E (top space). Just about this 
point in the scale the soprano voice as¬ 
sumes a beautiful limpid quality (if 
rightly produced) which is the glory of 
the soprano voice. It is of supreme im¬ 
portance that these notes (from E. or E 
flat, to B flat) be perfectly produced, for 
the color of these notes is to be carried 
down throughout the scale to modify and 
beautify all the lower registers. These 
high notes must become an integral part 
of all the lower notes, however long it 
takes, in order to perfect the scale. The 
moment the lyric soprano loses this beau¬ 
tiful "head" quality out of the middle 
notes they become white and disagree¬ 

The deeper notes of the lyric soprano 
come very slowly if they are to unite per¬ 
fectly with the rest of the voice. It is 
easy enough for the singer to produce 
the false chest notes, but they weaken 
the middle notes so that they arc hard to 
restore. The ly ric soprano should remem¬ 
ber always that she must cultivate a good 
middle voice. 

The tenor voice presents a serious diffi¬ 
culty on or about E (top space). The 
upper part of the true tenor voice has a 
clear, brilliant masculine ring that has an 
extraordinary emotional effect. Every¬ 
one loves tlie clear, manly tenor voice 
easily and yet manfully produced. Near¬ 
ly all tenors have the difficulty of the 
struggle between the low and the high 
notes. The difficulty is largely caused by 

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Until then address “Musicolony” Westerly, R. I. 


Teacher of Singing for over Twenty Years 

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pushing up the low notes too high and 
not singing soon enough in the higher 
resonance, and needs more of the lower 
(top space) always in the high resonance 
the difficulty may be overcome. But to 
push the lower notes up to C is very 
hazardous and wearing on the F and F 
sharp. With some voices, however, the 
E is rather too weak in the higher 
resonance and needs more of the lower 
resonance to make the voice even. An¬ 
other defect of the tenor voice is to sing 
D, E and F (top line) very open in the 
back of the throat, making these three 
notes sound as if they belonged to an¬ 
other person. This defect is easily 
remedied in the hands of a good master. 

ouuu EAKLY 

^kaiotnq ESSEN. 




Teacher of Singing 

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The baritone and bass voices present a 
difficulty about middle C or D. Many 
singers proceed at this point to “close” 
the voice, as they call it. This process 
seems to consist of pushing up the back 
of the tongue and smothering the pass¬ 
age of the voice, thus depriving the voice 
of its brilliancy and vitality. The upper 
part of the baritone voice especially 
should have a manly brilliant ring that 
one cannot obtain by smothering the tone. 
•Why not try to sing with the natural 
open voice but with less depth than the 
lower notes? This will give the required 
brilliancy without giving forth that suf¬ 
focating sound so common among bari¬ 
tones. This suffocating sound seems 
large to the singer, but very little of it 
gets over the footlights, and what does 
“get over” is very uncomfortable to the 
listener. This is just as true of the bass 
or bass-baritone voice, although for some 
reason or other the bass singer usually 
prefers to sing that stuffy hollow sound 
in the back of his throat to the firm 
manly quality that Planqon, for example, 
used to sing. 

Baritones sometimes produce a defect 
in the voice like the one mentioned of 
the tenor—i.e., singing about three notes 
of the voice from about B to Eb (above 
bass cleff) with an open tone in the back 
of the throat. There can be no other 
notes in the voice like these, and they 
sound raw and coarse. These, too, are 
easily remedied by the advice of a good 

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A Collection of Exceptionally Original critical observations from the pen of one of 
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With tts authorship concealed in mystery this new volume supposed to 1 k 
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It is lamentable, but nevertheless t. 
that most American believe that becaiK^’ 

‘ e M r,- S 2" I,alian he «"«» tcach th 3 
old Italian vocal method. An At» f - ' 
who did not know one word o T" 
might he able to teach what is common" 

7 a \ th j “° ,d I,alia " method” T ; 
word method is had in itself, as cont 
singing, according t 0 the way Lamoe«; 
and other great masters have successful 
taught, ts based on the laws of , f 
therefore, if there is a method, iLuJb* 
natures method. It is not what you s £ 
but how you sing it. Thus the so-called 
Italian method finds its abusers those who 
have sung works of the Italian school 
and whose only reward was ruined voices. 

I heard a young lady who had been 
through several of these so-called “old 
Italian schools, who did not even know 
how to stand, how to breathe, how to »•> 
her mouth or, in fact, did not know Hr 
purpose of a single organ used in singing 
The only thing she had accomplished was 
to get an awful tremolo. The large 
number of operatic stars, whose voices 
have been built in America, shows that 
we have at least certain teachers who 
could go to Italy, or any other country, 
and rank among the best masters of the 
present day. 

It is the duty of the teacher to explain 
how every note is to be sung and not 
Slm L y ,. to sing it. It is the same thing 
with the Leschetizky principles of playing 
a piano. It is not going through certain 
studies that makes one a good pianist. 

It is the way of applying the method that 
counts. In other words, the Leschetizky 
principles can be used with almost any 
good piano study. 

We have what we term our natural way 
of singing. The natural way is not what 
nature intended. Here is a good example 
of this: Often someone will speak to 
me about some friend who has a beauti¬ 
ful natural voice, but has never studied. 
Now why is the voice naturally beautiful? 
Simply because the throat is well formed, 
the head cavities well rounded out, the 
lungs, and. in fact, almost everything used 
in singing, are well balanced for a fine 
voice. But while a voice of this kind may 
be beautiful to the untrained ear, yet one 
who has studied generally finds many 
faults, such as poor breathing, uncon¬ 
nected registers, etc., which show that 
the voice is being used incorrectly, even 
though it may sound well to the un¬ 
trained ear. But, remember, this sort of 
singing can’t last. One with an untrained 
voice, spoken of above, generally makes a 
practice of singing at various friends’ 
homes, forcing this naturally fine voice 
with the usual rag-time airs, which are 
had for any voice, until it is ruined. 
These so-called friends, with their silly 
flattery and bad advice, put the singer 
back years, if they don’t succeed in help¬ 
ing to ruin him altogether. • , 

Then one frequently hears, “Isn't it 
strange that Miss So-and-So used to have 
such a lovely voice and now cannot sing 
any more.” The truth is that Miss So- 
and-So should have studied from the very 
beginning to learn to sing without forcing 
her voice. The forcing of the voice causes 
the vocal cords to bend and strain unti 
they lose all their elastic quality, after 
which time they will not even vibrate, 
which is the only function required o 
them by nature, and which action alone 
can bring about a clear tone and perfe 
freedom in singing. < 

The untrained voice with fir> e natura 
possibilities is often forced until the vo^ 
cal cords which were being stretched an- 
bent, have lost all the elastic quality an 
vibration which gives them their ea 


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The various methods of voice placing 
may be easily narrowed down into two 
distinct classes; namely, the analytic and 
synthetic. The vocal teacher, just begin¬ 
ning his career, is‘apt to give the matter 
hut very little thought and consequently 
he is often troubled over poor results 
among his pupils. Even among the older 
and more experienced teachers, the mat¬ 
ter has been one of long debate and ap¬ 
parently no definite agreement has yet 
been reached. 

From the standpoint of obtaining bet¬ 
ter results from our pupils, let us inves¬ 
tigate both of these methods. The ana¬ 
lytic method consists of taking the result 
and working backward to see how it is 
accomplished. In other words, we start 
with a beautiful tone and analyze the feel¬ 
ings, so as to be able to produce it again 
at will. On the other hand, the synthetic 
method is based upon the development of 
individual parts. That is, the breath is 
treated as a separate item, as is the posi¬ 
tion and flexibility of the tongue and other 
parts of the body. Exercises are given to 
perfect each minute muscle in its separate 
function until finally a perfect tone is 

The former, or analytic method, is that 
employed by the majority of vocal teach¬ 
ers. Usually a new pupil is brought into 
the studio and asked to imitate a certain 
tone—the model being given, as a rule, 
by the teacher. The pupil tries his best 

to produce a similar tone, hut 99 times out 
of 100 is unsuccessful. This is due to the 
fact that he has not the slightest notion 
regarding the proper muscular action. The 
case is paralleled by that of a man who 
has never handled a tool in his life and 
is brought into a carpenter's shop and told 
to duplicate a beautiful sample of cabinet 
making. The reader may judge the re¬ 
sult. If the music student is tireless and 
persistent he may eventually hit upon the 
correct method, but the odds are inevit¬ 
ably against him. 

Studying by the synthetic method the 
pupil has a much harder road to travel 
than his brother who pursues the analyt¬ 
ic method—hut the results are positive. 
To begin with, the vowel sounds which 
are generally used seem harsh and dis¬ 
sonant to the casual listener. This in 
itself, usually prejudices the teacher 
against it. Moreover, to attain the proper 
muscular action, the pupil must put life 
and spirit into his work. The exercises, 
on the whole, sound as little like the final 
result as does any individual orchestral 
instrument sound like the completed or¬ 
chestra. And yet each has its function. 
In due time, after the muscles of the 
larynx and the pharynx are each taught 
their action in the production of the per¬ 
fect tone, the pupil may be allowed t > 
sing a few simple songs until gradually 
a repertoire is developed. 

The way in which the first few songs 
are sung after a pupil has faithfully prac¬ 
ticed the fundamental exercises of the lat¬ 
ter method is generally convincing enough 
to the unprejudiced observer to establish 
the superiority of the synthetic method. 

How Teachers are Combating the Missed Lesson Evil 

Missed lessons 

Musicians of the country have 
adopted ttve rule which requires 
students to pay Tor all missed lessons 
except in case of proiracted illness. 
Teachers are expected to conform to 
this rule. 

!• c*f Three Hundred Rejw-caantidive 


,M interested, but would be unwilling 
scribe to such pledge except In cases win 
tracts are made for entire year or bi 
r.—J ohn 0. Grigcs, A etc York. 

’here is nothing that gives the teacher 
eh trouble as pupils who - 


rks finely, 
.tisic the sat 
The prlvat 

d be steps taken ... 

M. Baldwin, Illinois 

Insincerely wish there 
blot out such practice. 

other school life. The private teacher has 
only one alternative—Insist on tuition In 
advance! Students not In earnest will not 
apply; the class of those wanting •‘munir les¬ 
sons” will gradually diminish or go elsewhere. 
—8. H. Lovewkll, Ohio. 

1 am heartily In favor of some form being 
lopted to save teachers from financial ' 

e the question ot mtsseo —• 

tlv clear and Insist upon the earning o 
: he contract.— Charles N. Drake, A 

he rule “All lessons omitted will be 
*&erWb& objection to the 

e, and it Is only fair to ‘lie 
her: would keep away. P® rb ®P* 
niinlls whose loss would be more than 


'teacheris leniency in this regard.-loux 
KES. A’rtP lork. 

..restIv in favor of adopting the rule 


cd (except in xww a , molv because 

s frequently 

My n 

icd la t 
this does 
' lime.—M. D. 

from missed lessotit 
pupils pay by the lesso 
reimburse a teacher for 
Kromeb, Scic Jcrtey. 

I think that the movement taken li 
Philadelphia Music Teachers’ Assoc' 
regard to missed lessons should re 
earnest support of every teacher, for 
be of great benefit to us all. I have, however, 
not made np any lessons except In cases of 
protracted illness or upon receiving a doeto 
signature, obtained by the patient. With b 
wishes.—E rnest A. Ash, Veto York. 

I am certainly In sympathy with the state¬ 
ment regarding missed lessons except that I 
believe that the teacher should make up the 
leuson where It Is missed for a good reason, 
and where twenty four hours' notice Is given. 
—Madel M. Dill, Washington, D. C. 

I am In complete sympathy with the 
“missed lesson" movement, though 1 have n 
found it possible to enforce It in this rlt 
Conditions In purely Industrial, cities are d 
ferent from those In i" 

Shari-, M-“ 

■ large cities.— 

, , Price 20c per hundred 

Please mention THE ETUDE when addressing our edvertleers 

the artistic faculty 




von ENDE 


have rewarded this institu¬ 
tion with a measure of 


Artistic recognition in the 
musical world which stands 
alone in the history of the 
development of musical in¬ 
stitutions— necessitating 
larger quarters: 

In its 


meeting the requirements of 
a thoroughly equipped 
school building with an at¬ 
mosphere of refinement and 
culture located at 

44 WEST 85th ST. 

one of the most exclusive 
blocks on the upper west- 
side, which we will occupy 


various new educational 
features have been added, 


of our students will receive 
exceptional consideration. 

The Young Ladies’ Club 
The Young Men’s Club 
The Alumni 

each will occupy individual 
roomsequipped with all that 
is implied in replacing home 
life for outof town students. 


for the exclusive use of stu¬ 
dents of The von Ende 
School of Music will be 
located September first in 
theimmediatevicinityof the 
school under thesupervision 
and chaperonage of a south¬ 
ern woman until recently 
associated with a prominent 
southern college. 

The Fall Term begins 
September 15th, although 
students may enter at any 

The Fall Catalog will be 
mailed for the asking. 

Add res* 

Herwegh von Ende, Director 
Box 7-44 West 85th Street 
New York City 



work would indicate, the organist must 
be not only a specialist under the new 
spirit of the times, but the general prac¬ 
titioner as well, and of a higher order in 
both departments. 

Hence, the aspiring'organ-student needs 
more than ever to know his voice cul¬ 
ture, for his duties include choir-training 
and vocal accompanying, and piano play¬ 
ing, for he must adapt at sight from the. 
piano score accompaniments of all grades 
fulness is confined to some one thing and of difficulty. He must be thoroughly ac- 
mfher h7rri n fL a l7 ayS * is ^nted with the choral literature of all 

so very long ago, when ^nd habituated to t£ old'regime^adopt ^ ^ 





CHICAGO Tw ° manual, 

KIMBALL Pipe Organs are ■m!!'!,^ 
the world's greatest omS? S ’*** 1 *■«* 
or gan buildinggiro, mostcarefully 11 ®* ol 


Time a 

iimb. was, not so very long ago, when ana nabituatet 

the term “Professions.” embraced only the himself to the new. Scholarship and com- the part-song, and si 

three traditional callings, the Ministry, prehensive culture have often given wav elU , d j ter himself to be ab ] e 
Law and Medicine (and Surgery). To- to facility and mechanical (or to make it contro1 and enthuse others. His techni- 
day the members of “Professionals” of sound better, technical) dexterity cal e<p, 'P ment must include, besides his 

sort or other is legion. It is not This effects the organist in many wavs C ° mmand of the console, a thorough fa- 

' ' . „ ood j n _’ ctlity in keyboard harmony, score-read- 

o find in "! g and improvisation. And if he can 
than the direct a s y m Phony orchestra or organize 
- an amateur operatic, performance, it is 
hardly considered out of his line, 
organ-piaying than And for all this he gets—a sense of 
a large extent they power and of work well done, and the 
To begin with, the organ- J°y of living a full life. Whether he will 

much more than the “three score and some good and others not so good, 
ten” years allotted to man since the mu- telligent people hardly expect to find 
sician was a menial and ate—and more this new day greater organists than 

than likely belonged—with the servants giants of a past age, for genius does not 

in the kitchen. Among the first “mu- come for the calling, but they do expect 

S'cians by trade” to earn a certain a higher average of organ-playing than 

amount of respect in the community were ever before, and ' 

S.°r S v1~ eS T Sib | e f °i r th , e mUSiC Divine f r ?,f ettin » it- Tu ucP witn, tne organ- J^y or nvmg a tun tite. Whether 1 
longed or£nalK r m y ^ „ 7 -t 7' ld . rs - t0 °- have become specialists, and get also a good income depends very 

the^clergy g na y ‘° ° r *** ^ 3 “7^ in ,ar * ely U P°" «■ temperament and his en- 

To jS extent the organist still re- invest ~ 

tains this unique position among the mu- ment in good instruments and the ennse \ , automo J ,,les - fcut ,lle . v a™ 

sical fraternity. To begin with, his quent increased attention to organ-XT naLe D i am0 " g X Cap,ainS of 
equipment is generally more thorough, ing on the part of the public at large For what a they "7 er wi " be - 

his horizon more broad, than that of organists have acquired new opportune' tffinJ y ' f S° ney 1 and tbe matenal 
other classes of musicians. The fact that ties and responsibilities as performers to / g ' fe l ° the real or ? an,st - when he 
he is brought constantly into direct con- which they are for the most Dart mens- , ? , ‘ espo !’ s,ve instrument on which to 

tact with the clergy and other cultured uring up. The growth of such an organi- avlS 1 h,s time and energies. After all, 
people, both demands and stimulates cul- zation as the American Guild of Organ !° SUC1 30 ° ne tbe merel >' wealthy man is 
ture in him, if he means to remain in the ists, is as much an effect as a cause in beSt characterized what a great, but 

field. For the same reason, since, even this great movement. not very wealthy, pianist once said of h 

if he deals with trained ‘professional • 

singers, he mingles to a greater or less Appropriate music. 

extent with the congregation, the more Of course, there are dangers attendant 

especially if he lie the fortunate master upon such a movement, and one of them 

of a volunteer choir, his interests are is seen in the demand, and too often the 
less circumscribed, his relations more di- organist is not strong enough nor dip- 
versified, and his social life and habits lomatie enough to withstand it that th 

morn nnrmnl Th.’e „ _t. « - ’ 

Steere Organs 

bans and hom". CheS SCh °° IS ‘ lhratr «. M* 

5 “ eco " d hand wgans for sale 

S|>ecifications and prices on request. 

s W ' HF RE & S0N 0RGAN co. 

oprin^neld. Mass. " - * - 

ed 1867 

. "-‘j piamai uiigc saia 01 111 s 

rich brother, "He doesn’t amount to any¬ 
thing; he knows nothing about music!” 


One of the common fallacies about 
organ playing is that it takes a wonder 

7"~"* Ilim apositiOT "OT. which ha« made “ch wonLS S 22 Ufc’ .* 

. ffsAvsattarts ra 

which count for much in the efforts for question of the appropriateness of plaving Iton Xf’ a " ° rgan 'f vv 1 1 , 1 ° p,a - vs on a S°- 

musical dtvelopment. m „ sic , rom „,he S.'.'SS “X, “TS « c7' d " n 

As a matter of course, occupying so especially in church services, and to what greater than one Jh T S ° mUC ’ 

prominent a place in the community, the extent, is one which will probable never w h who pays 0,1 a morc 

organist is the music-teacher, the chorus- be answered to the satisfaction of all con- smaHer towX'lt'Is ° f st0ps , in a 
leader, the concert-giver, and the pro- cemed. but without taking extreme American ha hi/ f * par ' VIth ® ur 
moter of musical enterprises. In his best ground on either side, it is readilv aopar « / f nleasurln g the value 
estate his relation to the congregation he ent that there are manv things which in ' tS S ' Ze ’- and is 35 absurd 

serves and the public at large is closely cannot be adequately played upon even As a matter ° fte " ,s ,n others - 

akin to that of the family physician and the finest organ and many others which out all the ° r^’ 3 T- 3 or ? an wlth - 

the pastor, in their respective fields, that ought not to be played at all in a hous- 1 1 appl,an «s which Yankee in¬ 
is, he is the counsellor and guide in mat- of worship, especially during the public fest of a l deV ' S * ed ' S ° Uen a greater 

ters artistic, the arbiter, often, of matters services. * P tc st of a player s resourcefulness and 

of more or less importance which con- But here those of us who adhere at ,f dMSS than , an up-to-date large 

cern him not at all, but which pertain least in part to the ideals of the more / . an " ther modern device, 

to that hizy realm (in most men’s minds) recent past, cannot forego a su<r ?e stion «u!t is , 1S , done f °j one ‘ tlle rc ' 

designated “Music.” and the one to whos? that the organist who knows noth ini hn" „'!• ° t f . ten ,n dolence and atrophy of 
lot it falls, more often than to any other’s his own instrument, no matter how well combiSns S'to' BeS /t S ’ T 
o discover and encourage talent. Truly, he knows that, has no perspective no arTfftrfv ? i z ? ch tonal Vanety 
his is no mean calling, and the world at sense of proportion has not even a nod if f n • “,. the organ,st ’ especially 
large and the musical profession in par- ding acquaintance with the things to be dollin oT / lndl " ed ’ far . afiekI int0 the 
ticttlar, owe him a great debt of gratitude, avoided, as they really ale to LI 7 t0ne ^ olor ' wll ich in itself is 
However, the world lias changed a for the task before him. In other wo^ds to develop ^If th* ^ bU ‘ Wh J ch , ° Ught not 
great deal in the past decade, or a little as a teacher of organ and church music' l ?, the expense of clearness of 
more and particularly in the direction of one comes all So frequlnX uPon ffte dev ^ p ™ent. 

social adjustments. The family physi- performer whose command of the or^n incr i S s,fen . 1 ^ cant the improvis- 
cian still exists, but the man who lake's is bmTh7 k/ow^soTiS" jj l n /. C ° a l e P0Sing 0rga " ists of the h igh- 

the money and wins fame in his pro/es- of music as a whole that be mav and o/J * • 5 " 0t USUally found at thc 
sion and the world at large is the spec- often does, offend in most idaring fash heautl safisfi W 7 re sheer tonaI 

lahst. The pastor still does his noble— ion. against the laws of good taste and the f. sfies al ! to ° ofte ». while theme 

and needful—work, but the greatest glorv fitness of things “ j working-fiut involve too much effort 

and the largest bank account, and the Tt would seem then that as matwc ‘ f"'“ dlst “ r,) tbe '"foxication of tone-color 

most dazzling successes in point of rum- stand M v -It !' oi l V . a °° t0 be popu,ar - d ^bt there 

bers. fall to the itinerant “pu'pit-nraior" not^ lesiffiXi™ hut ZZT L”?^ 7’ UCh to be said in fovor of the large 
and the evangelist. The same spirit has past. Not alone a greater concentration In' T'tX' but " ne wonders when read- 

invaded all fields, and none more thor- upon the technique and literature of the «tiU Wglr Tro^elXH !° rgan 7 ° f ^ 

oughly than the musical. The age of the organ, hut that and at least as much gen- itist li ft 7 7 Llverp001 organ - 

specialist is at hand with a vengeance, eral musical culture^ as'ever TnT mZ bave the 

and we consider it not at all unusual to whenever possible. For so far as a vrd- wfth a 1 tb w, ° f 3V 50 t0 60 stops 

find men and women whose range of use- acquaintance with organists and their cessodes. h b ^ m ° re USefld aC ' 


Estey standard maintained. 
Maximum facilities. 

Highest grade of product 
Pioneers and leaders always. 
Examine stop action and wonderful reedtm 
Oboe, Saxophone, Clarinet, etc. 

ESTEY ORGAN CO., Br.,u.bwo,v W m„.,u.S.i 

Frederick Maxsoi 

Organist First Baptist Church 

Instruction in Piano, Orgar 

and Theory of Music 

Address, 1003 S. 47th Sir cl PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Pipe Organs of Highest Grade Ogj 

Our Instruments comprise all features»W< 
- ■ ■ -- — oi pracliC' 

are of real value, 


Many years o 

l. [« specific*! 

Westfield. I 

Church Orgfcfl 




Church Organ Pe^ 1 

Attached to Upright Pianos lot org« . 
students to practice on th«' r M , B l 

Syracuse Church Organ Co-, I’f’ 1 "”, 

Successor toT. H. KNOLLIN, Syr«“____ 


the etude 

As a matter of fact, the multiplication keep up professional ideals and stand- 
of large instruments has had a bad effect ards. 

upon students, who are no longer con- The dilettante in any field is likely to 
tent, as in the olden days, to study upon prove the enemy of its best interests, and 
a small two-manual instrument, and the dilettante organist is to an unusual 
strive for true mastery of its every re- e-xtent a deleterious influence. It would 

source and try honestly to bring out all b c well to cultivate among our organists 

that it can do. And it is quite discon- wherever possible, a spirit of noblesse 

certing to find even three manuals no oblige, an esprit de corps that will make 

longer worth mentioning, even though evc jy organist proud of his profession, 
the organ may be an artistic triumph, and ? nd P r p ud that the most important serv- 
all that the building can use to advan- | Ce which he as organist has to perform 
is in connection with public religious 
Too much attention is being paid too services—the leader of Worship in 
early in the course to registration, and Mus i c - 

too little to technique in its many phases, -—j- 

including not only the playing of man- THE MINISTER AND THE CHOIR 

uals and pedals, but improvisation, key- __ 

board, harmonization, transposition Many of the problems confronting the 
adaptation, and reading from score all earnest organist and choirmaster are 
important and all necessary to some ex- aggravated b the ignorance or indiffer . 
tent, at leasMn the career of every sue- ence , or? what is worse> the inter fere„ce 
cessful organist. 0 f tbe minister. Of course, there can be 

Let the aspiring young organist work no quesion about the minister’s right, as 
from within out, aiming to develop all director and leader of the worship, to in- 
the ideas and faculties that he has, and ter fere, if he so desires, but whether he 
try to play artistically on any sort of in- ought, considering his training and equip- 

strument, no matter how small or archaic. 
That is the true test of an artist. 


ment, to exercise that right under most 
circumstances is certainly a debatable 
question. Unfortunately, the great ma¬ 
jority of ministers lack anything like ade¬ 
quate training in this most important de¬ 
partment of their work, and the fault lies 
One of the hardest tilings to find, in almost entirely with the theological semi- 
ihese days, is good church organists, naries in their failure to provide facilities 
Every town and many a village has its for the proper Study of church music 
concert organist (should I not write it True, the Episcopalians, and to some ex- 
with capitals?) who gives Organ Recitals tent the Lutherans, make provision, 
or Concerts, ranging from Bach or Bux- which is more or less satisfactory, hut 
tehude to Tschaikowski and Wagner, most denominations do nothing worth 
But when it comes to playing an ordi- speaking about. The Presbyterians in 
nary hymn-tune don’t insult him by men- , Union and Western Seminaries have 
tioning that it may be played artistically, strong courses, and Prof. Charles Boyd, 
and artistically in this case means simply of the latter institution, lias recently- pub- 
and accurately. When he does conde- lished eight of his “Lectures on Church 
scend to play one, it is with all proper Music,” under that title, which are brim- 
(!) regard to solo effects and tone-color full of valuable hints and good liorse- 
and tempo-rubato and expression. Per- sense. I quote with pleasure some of 
ish the thought that the hymn is simply a the things he says about the relation of 
melody, harmonized usually in four parts, minister and choir. 

which is to be sung by congregations, "Personal encouragement of the choii 
musically uneducated for the most part, by the minister does much to promote 
which know little and care less about good feeling in the choir loft. I remem- 
ihe aesthetics of organ playing, and which, ber with great pleasure the visits of a 
if you distract its attention too much for minister who came to our choir rehcar- 
high-jinks and curly-cues, will simply sals every Saturday evening. He was 
keep quiet and listen, to the total ruina- fond of music, thougli not specially 
tion of everything that the hymn exists gifted in a musical way, and he took care 
for. Something might be said, too, about to avoid any discussion of debatable mat- 
ihe slip-shod method of accompanying ters or any suggestions in regard to choir 
anthems and solos, and the abominable performances. He always brought us the 
laste shown in the selection of material, hymns, and we went over them in his 
liut the changes have been prettv well presence. If a tune were new or unsuit- 
r nng on these evils, and to mention them able, he was ready to change to another 
is sufficient. hymn when advisable, hut never without 

Common honesty would require that learning the choir’s opinion of the first 
'he person who attempts to plav in selection. This minister seldom _ a > CI 
church ought to be competent and to do long at the rehearsal, on account ot the 
at all times his verv best; otherwise he many demands upon a pastor s 11 , 

«’a«ht to seek other employment. It is his calls were welcomed by '“V™™- 
excuse to say that the salary is usual- ber of the choir, and "'ill long he re- 
'y inadequate, and that he is giving all membered as a display of kind!> interest 
be 15 Paid for. That is neither true nor and good fellowship ConUas such a 
sensible. The fact remains that., no mat- minister with one who regards he cho 
tcr !"»» small the salary, the church has simply as a means °f filling certain niche* 
a r,ght to honest service, and honest in the service, and of bndfp " g . . 
Hrvice means always one’s best. No one tain gaps in the program: one who e 'ber 
15 under compulsion to plav in church begrudges the choir the h> mns for re 
a « his will; in fact it is much heatsal or selects them at odd moments 
'■ftener the organist who seeks the posi- during the service. , lcomc 

‘ ,on . ‘han the church which seeks the or- say that the minister is always welco 
gamst - Therefore the service, no matter at in the choir loft when. 


recompense, is s 

, —--• - «* voluntary service, 1. He comes pleasantly, tbc 

d for that reason, in common decency, 2. He confines 11 s p anthems- 

"just he enthusiastic, whole-souled service, words and not the music of the 'anthem 

T e lim 'ted to those who can and those nor censure of the bct , vccn ,he 

^0 care to play in church, not only ters for private , settlement between 

wou d church music soon improve, hut so director and minister 
^uld salaries. It is ,J pin-money 4. He shows b >msclf w.lhng 
evTn k l r, i' n mUSic aS in b usiness. and to the choir co-opera {he minister 

sal 3 arRl ‘ r extent, who is ruining the In the pu • tbo choir. 

can do and ' tbe ' eaSt tbat sucb a pcrson n 0Uld £a preacher feels called upon 

u°i in justice,to the profession, is to Occasionally a p 

Beautify Your Home By Dusting With 

fo y ,h,T!uhoi 

i»no, furniture, wocklwork, floors snd er 


•ned uith the LIQUID VENEER 
the r ‘fi C ni*'h-mlke* C Tt' , |l,L 

just like 1 

■ C'c t a bottle to-day—it‘s sold by good 
f Dealers, Furniture, Hardware, Grocery, 
~ u S , Paint, Auto Supply and Depart- 
ntStorea everywhere under guarantee 
aatisfaction or your money refunded. 

tilTedMme' va»'TOMii ar,0n *" h 



■*■“■* ^ * M. M. M. Address, TRINITY CATHEDRAL, :: CLEVELAND, O. 



Church Organs 

-•test Approved Met hod 1 
>«d« Only. Established 1 _ 

Main Office & Works 

Hook-Hastings Co. 

The Organ Power Co. 


L O ETHER. OVER 8,000 


rliiwnr Hull I Wit.. 04£. Van 
I’hlrsfth 111. 

Guilmant Organ School 

DR. WILLIAM C. CARL, Director 





The organs we build ere ae near perfection 

Kinetic Blowers 
for Pipe Organs 

Thousands in Use 

About 250 in New York City, 

75 inChicago, lOOinPhiladelphia, 

75 in Boston, 75 in Pittsburgh, 
over 100 on thc Pacific Coast. 

Write lor "Modern Otgan Blowing " 
and - Pipe Organi Explained." 


57* i Baltimore A™., PHILADELPHIA 
Room 824-41 Pirl Re*. NEW TORE 

Room 5,12 Pearl Street. BOSTON 
1452 Mon.dno.-k Block, CHICAGO 

Austin Organs 

'J'WO large contracts 
duced by the commit¬ 
tees hearing a fine 
new Austin Organ in 
Washington, D. C., 
recently completed. 

Our organs are our 
best advertisement. 




New Organ Music On Sale 

:kage* o( ti 

profr*si<ma! season, so guarantee 

ly responsibility thc small amonnt of postage: i- 

rill atop the sending any time. Thousands td teache: 

Please mention THE ETUDE when addressing o 






During 1914 





By the S. S. Cleveland 

17,000 tons 

From New York January 15th, 1914. 
Through the Mediterranean, Suez Canal, 
Red Sea and Indian Ocean to Bombay 
and Colombo, including side trips 
and EGYFT, stopping at interesting 
points in Europe, Asia and Africa. 
Duration about 3 months 
Cost $700 up 

including shore excursions and nece 
sary expenses._ 

Nile Service 

By superb steamers of the Ham¬ 
burg and Anglo-American 
Nil e Compa ny. 

Cruises to West 
Indies, Venezuela 
The Panama Canal 

by the largest ships visiting the Carib¬ 
bean Sea 

S. S. AMERICA and 
During January—February 
Duration 16 to 29 Days 
Cost $145-$175 up 
Two 15 day Cruises from New Orleans 
during January and February 
Shor e trips opt ional 


Around the World 


From New York January 27th, 1915 
By 17,000 ton 
Duration 135 Days 
Rates $900 up 

including shore trips and necessary 

Atlas Service 

Weekly Sailings to Cuba, Jamaica and 
the Panama Canal, Hayti, Colombia, 
Costa Rica, Nicaragua, by new fast Twin 
Screw Steamers. Low rales until October. 

1 Our Tourist Department, with ex¬ 
perience of otter 25 years, arranges 
Tours by Rail or Steamer to all parts 

to announce to the congregation the ex- THE SMALL CHURCH AND THE 
cellence of the choir. In so doing he ORGAN. 

falls foul of one part of the congrega- - 

tion which is well aware that the .choir is The world is interested in big things, 
neither better nor worse than the aver- an< t organists are but human 
age, and another part of the congrega- onl T natural that one hears a great deal 
tion which through ignorance of music ab ° u * the magnificent new instrument! 
(the italics are not Prof. Boyd’s) feels w t hicf ! b c eing P lace , d “ tb ? great 

fully competent to judge for itself. And f cburc £ es bke Thomas, New Vork, c 

often the choir improves the next oppor- c e . , f eS - v erlar| , icago, c 

. .. , . r Smith College, but the very great majoi- 

tumty by a lamentable failure of some ity of churches cannot affor(1 to , 
kind. A safe plan for public announce- $10 ,000 or more upon an instrument 
ment is to say, when it may be said truth- great manyi ; n f actj have less than $2,000, 
fully that the choir is working faithfully and some less than $1,000. What are 
*■ provide good church music and that they to do—buy a piano? Hardly. 


To quote again from Prof. Boyd’s 

“One often finds a congregation which 
has fallen into a chronic state of dissat¬ 
isfaction with its choirs. I use the 
plural advisedly because such a congre¬ 
gation frequently changes a part or all 
of its choir. If the choir is composed of 
volunteers the congregation may expect 
the results demanded of 

„ It 

may be fashionable to sneer at the parlor 
organ (harmonium), but I would person¬ 
ally much rather have a parlor organ, 
even an old-fashioned melodeon, 
church, than a piano. 

But when there is not much money, 
makeshifts are often necessary. In such 
a case ,the thing to do is to get an Aux¬ 
iliary Pipe-Organ or some other make of 
two-manual and pedal reed instruments, 
preferably with a motor to blow it. Such 
an instrument often has a very satisfac- 
... , tory tone, and its cost is very much less 

, . . . high-priced than that of a pipe organ, and it does 

professional aggregation; if the choir is not easily get out of order, 
paid the congregation may think the re- But not all small churches are obliged 
suits are much less satisfactory than to resort to makeshifts. Many of them 

should be expected from the money spent, can afford to spend from $1,500 to $2,500 

. . . In general the dissatisfied congrega- for an organ, and expect to get a satis- 
tion is represented by an incompetent factory and serviceable instrument for 
music committee, not necessarily in per- the money. It is not always easy to get 
sonnel, but in manner of procedure. First one of the large, well-established build- 
get the music committee enlightened. ... ers to bid on a small instrument, but they 
Then turn the congregation’s attention ab ma ke good instruments at as low a 

upon itself, and start a decided move- figure as S 2 - 500 . However, it is not al- 

ment toward better hymn singing, and J a> ' s good economy to pay several hun- 

when this is done there will be a differ- , ds of , dollars f° r a name, if one 

ent atmosphere in which to adjust the Wlere t0 g ° and what t0 expect 

for the money. 

Here are the specifications of a little 
organ, with pneumatic action, and all 
registers extending through the entire 

CRITICISING CHURCH MUSIC. &a C3n be had for about 

qn.auu, and is a good serviceable mstru- 
One accustomed to good music during ment, capable of a great deal of variety 

the week cannot lay aside his critical of expression, and a satisfactory church 

faculties at the door of the church on organ. 

Sundays.” Sometimes one would think Great Organ. 

that those who were not accustomed to Open Diapason, 8’ metal. 

good music during the week took up their Clarabella, 8’ wood. 

critical faculties at the church door. It Dulciana, 8' metal (enclosed in swell- 

is not always true that the amount of box). 

criticism bears any relation to the amount Swell Organ. 

paid the choir, though in some cases the Oboe Gamba, 8' metal 

choir matters, if they need arrangement.” 
Dickinson remarks in his “History of 
Music in the Western Church”; 

monetary question does influence the at¬ 
titude of the congregation. Frequently 
the remarks show a decided lack of musi¬ 
cal knowledge on the part of the critics, 
some declaring that such a singer is 
worthy of great praise, and that another 

serious detriment to the choir; both p 

opinions being entirely wrong. In the Swell and Great J pj , , c „ 

case of a paid choir it is hard to avoid Grea aLso Wn a r T Sw f 

such talk, but it would be well to take J ^ cir, 11 a J? d Gr £ at Super > Swe!1 
the advice of competent musicians 

Stopped Diapason. 8' wood. 
Flute Harmonie, 4' metal. 

Pf-dal Organ. 
Bourdon, 16' wood. 

c , ’ , : .. 1 ouper, swell 

Sub, and Swell to Great Super and Sub. 

preference to voluble members of the 
congregation. But when the choir is 
largely or altogether volunteer, this free¬ 
dom of criticism is not only dangerous, 
but positively unfair. In the first place, 
the singers contribute their services to 


Great to Pedal Reversible. 
Tremolo (Swell). 

Balanced Swell Pedal. 
Balanced Crescendo Pedal. 

me singers contriDute tneir services to c t, - 

aid in the music of the church, rarely for P . r , , an organ may even be used for 
personal advancement, and the musical W ° rk ° f DOt to ° ambitio,,s a rllar - 

of not too ambitious a char¬ 
training they get can only be regarded as I s witb ’ !1 tbe reach of all but the 

incidental. Such singers are therefore i congregat, °ns, and goes far to 
s ° lve the organ problem ' 

the small 

immediately set apart from the profes¬ 
sionals, and their music should be re¬ 
garded accordingly. If the anthem has 

not been well sung, there may he good A pessimist recently remarked mat m., 
reasons therefor none of them apparent sicians arc little people who sit alone i 
to the outside observer; if the music was separate studios, hatfng each other B^ 
unusually good, there should be congrat- professional jealousy is not confined t 
ulations but not flattery or boasting. In musicians, nor to the age in wh, c h i 

to the outside observer; 
unusually go 
ulations but not flattery 

, ‘ --—*e>. nnuiuaiis, nor to 

brief, the music should be judged bv the live ,u • ,, „ . 

pretensions of those who make it and the pher has said “RmlT, °h ° S °: 

recompense they receive for it. and un- Jotter and crafts™^ P / '/ Jea '° l ' S ° 

authorized opinions should be regarded Joor mJJ has a craftsman; and 

accordingly.” * a grudge again st poor man, 

8 y a ™ poet against poet.” 

Please mention THE ETUDE when addresstng onr advertisers. 

600 Prize Offi 




Publisher of The Etude 
L J , makes the following offer be. 

mg convinced that comped 
tions of tins kind will awaken JJJ 
interest ,n pianoforte composition and 
stimulate to effort many composers 
both those who are known an/tte 
who are yet striving for recognition, 
bringing to the winners a desirable pub- 
hcity in addition to the immediate finan¬ 
cial return. It seems unnecessary to 
note that the fame of the composer will 
m no way influence the selection and 
that the pieces will be selected by abso¬ 
lutely impartial judges. 


will be divided among the successful 
composers in the following manner: 

Class I. F° r 'he best two Concer 
_ , , „ J mces for piano solo, w 

otter the following prizes:— 

First Prize - - . $100.00 
Second Prize - - 60.00 

Class II. . F or the three best Par 
Jor rieces for piano m 
offer three prizes as follows:— 

First Prize - - - -$75.00 
Second Prize - - - 50.00 
Third Prize - - - - 35.00 

(waltz, march, tarantelle, mazurka, 
polka, etc.) we offer the following 

First Prize - - - - $50.00 

Second Prize - - - 40.00 

Third Prize - - - 30.00 

Fourth Prize - - - 20.00 

riaec IV For the best fourEasy 
'“'lass IV. Tea ching Pieces in any 
ftyle, for piano, we offer the following 

First Prize - - - - $50.00 

Second Prize - - - 40.00 

Third Prize - - - 30.00 

Fourth Prize - - - 20.00 


The contest wilt close March 1st, I9H- 
All entries must be addressed to “The 
Etude Prize Contest, 1712 Chestnut 

St., Philad 

All man 
ing line vt 

., U. S./ 

ive the loiiow 
,p ol the first 

Involved contrapuntal treatment of 
themes and pedantic efforts should bt 
avoided. .c* 

No restriction is placed upon tW 
length of the composition. ob . 

No composition which has wen p 
lished shall be eligible for a^Jfccoms 

the property of The I?tide and to f* 
„„Ki;»klh „.„.l sheet form. 

The Etude 





Taking ihe country over, I doubt if 
there is a higher average than one in fifty 
violins which is in really first-class play¬ 
ing condition. Every teacher can testifiy 
that a new pupil rarely brings a violin 
which is in correct adjustment at all 
points. The bridge will be too high or 
too low, the fingerhoard furrowed with 
gutters, caused by the long continued 
pressure of the strings, the sound-post in 
the wrong place, the fingerboard too high 
or too low. necessitating the use of a 
bridge of improper height, the strings too 
near together or too far apart on the 
bridge, the nut too high or too low, open 
cracks in the violin, the bass bar loose or 
of the wrong size, etc., etc. 

To give the best results, the violin 
should be adjusted and regulated as care¬ 
fully as a watch or a microscope, and yet 
many violin, students, who know little 
about the violin, think themselves entirely 
competent to make repairs and adjust 
their instruments. The fact of the matter 
is that violin repairing is a very difficult 
art. In Germany a repairer is not con¬ 
sidered competent for this work until he 
has served an apprenticeship of at least 
seven years with some good violin maker 
and repairer. Thousands of people pos¬ 
sess violins of really excellent quality, 
but which are so out of repair and out of 
adjustment, that any artistic playing upon 
them is impossible. 

Take the case of the sound-post. The 
French call this bit of wood “L’ ame du 
violon”—the soul of the violin—since if 
it is not placed in the right position in 
the violin, the instrument will not give 
forth its best tones. There is one most 
favorable spot in every violin for the 
sound-post, and this is not the same in 
every violin by any means. The best 
position can only be found hv a series 
of experiments. A good repairer of large 
experience can approximate the best po¬ 
sition very closely in violins of various 
models, but after all the only true way to 
get the best results is by trying the sound- 
post in several positions until the tone 
produced seems to be the best possible. 
Unfortunately, very few violin repairers 
are expert players, and while they may 
be able to do the mechanical part of the 
job perfectly, yet they are unable to play 
on the violin in all positions and make a 
perfect test of the tone. The owner of 
the violin may be able to test the tone of 
the violin, and to judge of the position 
where the sound-post gives the best re¬ 
sults, hut is incompetent to make and 
place the sound-post. For this reason it is 
well for the player and repairer to work 
in conjunction, the one judging of the re¬ 
sults and the other doing the mechanical 
part of the work. All this takes time 
and expense, but it is well worth it. 


The great violinist Spohr says on this 

“For placing the sound-post, an iron in¬ 
strument is made use of. The point of 
this instrument is driven into the post 
half an inch from the end intended to be 
the upper part. Then thrust it through 
the right sound hole into the violin, and 
Place it upright, first pressing the lower 
end of the sound-pobt firmly on the hack 
of the violin, and next the upper end of 

the post against the belly, by drawing 
back the iron instrument. The instru¬ 
ment is now removed from the post, and 
with the hook, with which it is fitted, 
draw, or with the hollow, push at either 
end of the post until it is in the right 
place. This is generally close behind the 
right foot of the bridge, its foremost edge 
appearing parallel with the back edge of 
the bridge. 

“The sound-post must stand perfectly up¬ 
right, and must fit exactly to the upper and 
lower arch of the back and belly of the 
violin. This fitting is very difficult, and 
can only be accomplished by looking 
through the hole into which the tail pin 
fits after having removed the tail pin. 
The ends of the sound-post must be filed 
until they fit perfectly the arch of the back 
and belly. It is well first to blunt the 
upper edge of the sound-post to prevent, 
when being moved, its pressing into the 
soft wood of the belly. To ascertain 
whether the upper end of the sound-post 
in the direction from the sound-hole to 
the wooden bar stands in the right place, 
take a thin wire, bent at one end in the 
form of a hook, and measure its distance 
from the edge of the sound-hole, then 
hold the measure over the belly and com¬ 
pare whether the distances correspond. 

“The sound-post must be neither so 
long as to move the belly, nor so short as 
to shift, or perhaps fall down through 
breaking of a string, or a jar. Without 
the strings being tightened it should only 
slightly adhere, and be easily moved back¬ 
ward and forward. The sound-post should 
be placed so that the grain of the wood 
may be crossed at right angles by the 
grain of the wood forming the belly, thus 
preventing injury to the wood of the lat¬ 
ter. Whether the sound-post should be 
large or small, of open or close grain, 
can onlv be decided by frequent trials. 
In general a violin with a thick belly will 
bear a thick sound-post better than one of 
less wood. If in following these direc¬ 
tions the violin should nevertheless not 
sound free enough, or is uneven in tone, 
then the sound-post must he moved back¬ 
ward or forward until the place is found 
where all four strings give the most pow- 
ful clear and equal tones of which the 
instrument is capable. T may 
if the tone, although even, is still rough 
and hard, move the sound-post a little 
backward from the foot of the bridge. 
Should the E and A strings he piercing 
and the G and D weak, move the sound- 
post towards the bar. On the other hand, 
should the lower notes he harsh and th 
upper ones feeble, then the sound-post 
should he drawn towards the sound-hole. 
The original place in making these ex¬ 
periments in the directions towards the 
sound-holes should not be ost sight of a^ 
the inequality of the Wily causes he 
sound-post to he either too long or to 
short Should a point different from the 
first place of the sound-post happen to be 
narticularly favorable to the tone exam¬ 
ine. after taking down the string*, t h rongh 
the opening of the tail-p-m whether the 

JToSCgJh. and adhere closely both 
and below, if not. it must of neces- 
Jv be altered or else a new one made. 
In moving the sound-post, care should be 
taken to prevent its turning and to keep 

its front side (distinguished by the per¬ 
forated hole made by the sound-post set¬ 
ter) always in the original position. 

All experiments should he made with 
the greatest care, and the sharp edges of 
the iron setter be rounded off to guard 
the sound-holes against injury. The ex¬ 
periments should never last long, as the 
ear soon becomes fatigued and insensible 
to the nicety required in distinguishing 
the quality of tone.” 

Spohr might have added that many fine 
violins, even Cremonas, have been dam¬ 
aged by carelessness in setting the sound- 
post. Many old violins have to have a 
patch of wood inserted where the sound- 
post rests against the belly, it having be¬ 
come so worn and scraped by the top of 
the sound-post. 

Every violinist should have a sound- 
post setter in his case, so as to be pre¬ 
pared to set his post in case of accident. 
It requires nice workmanship to fit the 
ends of the post to the arch of the back 
and belly, and the violin student will find 
it better to get a good violin repairer to 
do this than to try to do it for himself. 


It is getting to be well understood 
among violin teachers that the first exer¬ 
cises for the violin should be in the key 
of G. Most violin schools begin in 
the key of C. and remorselessly hold the 
beginner to this key for the first few 
months of his practice. The difficulty of 
this course is that is necessitates the play¬ 
ing of F natural with the first finger on 
the E string. This is one of the most 
difficult notes for the lieginncr to play in 
tunc. When the key of C is used with 
the beginner, one of two things happen, 
either he plays the first finger on the E 
string too high, producing the note F 
sharp, instead of what it should he, F 
natural, or else he changes the whole po¬ 
sition of his hand backwards, so as to 
get the finger low enough to play the F 
natural. In the first case it is injurious 
to his ear and to his future intonation to 
be continually playing the F natural too 
high, and in the second case it prevents 
his hand becoming set to the proper po¬ 
sition on the neck of the violin. Exten¬ 
sions and chromatics should he avoided 
until the hand has become well set to 
the proper position. After that has been 
attained, the first finger can he drawn 
back to make the tones which lie half an 
inch from the nut without disarranging 
Ihe entire position of the hand. Authors 
of famous violin schools often introduce 
difficulties at the very start, which make 
the pupil’s progress extremely uncertain. 
The great violinist Spohr wrote a violin 
school, which, while it contains much 
splendid material, cannot he used as a 
whole, since it plunges the beginner into 
a mass of difficulties before he has an ele¬ 
mentary foundation. Hermann, the late 
Leipzig violinist and writer of violin 
schools and etudes, also introduced exten¬ 
sions of the fourth finger to C natural 
on the E string and to F natural on A 
string in the first three pages of his 
Violin School. When attempting these 
extensions the beginner will infallibly 
slide up into the second position. 

It is also better to postpone the us • 
of the fourth finger on the G, D, and A 
strings until the hand has become accus¬ 
tomed to the first position, and will no’ 
he pulled out of position when the use 
of the fourth finger is attempted. 

Of course from a theoretical stand¬ 
point it would be better to commence with 
the kev of C. but theory can wait awhile, 
for from a mechanical standpoint, the 
start with the key of G is so much better 
According to my experience with pupils, 
the keys of G. D, A and F should be 
fairly well mastered licfore the key of C 
is attempted. With this course a pupil 
acquires better intonation and gains at 

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Season 1913-1914 

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StopsThat Bang 


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tl his first C 

only gives him r 
ually renders his task easier.” 

s the many pupils will show up with all i 
’**” strings put on just before the recital. 




For Kindergarten Teachers 

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least two months in the first year over the “Yes. Professor, I believe I can,” was 
pupil who starts in the key of C. the reply given with a wink at the boy 

Speaking of the fundamental key of the who had been praised for playing the 
violin, Henry Schradieck, one of the best Rode study better than he could, 
known modern writers of works for the “It is miraculous,” said Massart. 

violin, in the introduction to his School Wieniawski studied two years with 

for the First Position, says: “On account Massart, won the first prize, and when 
of the tuning (accordatura) the violin he was eleven started out 
occupies a position which may be termed cert tour °‘ Russla - 
a “dominant” position as compared with 
either viola or violoncello. And as it HINTS ON GIVING RECITALS, 

seems quite natural to begin instruction Keep down the length of the pro _ 

on the viola and violoncello with the so- granl . Unless of exceptional merit, a 
called normal key of C major, it appears program of one hour to one hour and 
equally so to commence on the violin a quarter is long enough; one hour and 
(the strings of which are tuned a fifth a half would be the extreme limit, 
higher) with the key of G major. The Frown on the encore nuisance, for once 
keynote and fifth of this latter key are started it never ends. If one pupil is 
prepared on the violin by the open strings allowed to take an encore, others will 
G and D, and the triad of G, either ma- be jealous if they are not allowed the 

jor or minor, is the first which can be same privilege. Have the performers 

produced complete in the first position acknowledge the applause by a bo.v. 
in combination with the open strings. The ’ Tune the violins of the performers 
key of G may, therefore, be considered yourself, and then you know it will be 
as the fundamental key of the violin; done right. It takes a professional vio¬ 
lence it conforms to the nature of the linist to tune a violin perfectly, besides 
instrument, to begin rudimentary teaching at such a time pupils are oftei. too nerv- 
with this key. True, the pupil will then ous and excited to tune their violins 
be expected to cope with chromatic signs well. 

from the very outset, but I have had fre- If the strings of the violins of the 
quent cause to convince myself that this various pupils are not in good condition 

|f f ™i„ t:-difficulty, but act- and new strings are necessary, have 

pa<I,,>r ” these put on a week or so before the 

A WIENIAWSKI ANECDOTE. recital, except in the case of the E 

tt • • , , string which may be put on a day or 

Henri Wieniawski was one of the two hefrweHond if ft,;. 

world’s greatest violinists. He 
Italians say, “born with a fiddle in hi: 

hand.” He was an infant prodigy, and The'new strings will stretch and will 
everything seemed to come so easy to him come oat of tune while the 
that it seemed to his teachers that he had playing 

known everything all the time, and that Have' several preliminary rehearsals, 
they were simply refreshing his memory in which the whoIe pro Ea m is gone 
when they explained any new difficulty to over> and at least one re h e arsal in the 
h Tf h A-° g ’ S ^ 1,tt ! e ' kn .° W " ha H where the recital is to be given 

Yn,?nlw - y °T ? \ - 50 that each P u P ;i will know exactly 

Young Wieniawski was only ten years of where he is to stand and how his 

age, and was studying at the Pans Con- i: n w ;ti sn ,, n j Y . , ' 

servatoire under Massart, the famous ^ to play 

French violinist and teacher. little Have handsomely printed programs 
Wieniawski was the most advanced of a „A rirtetc P < program 

any one in the class, but one day one of f nv l at £ s ’ or conlbine d P r o grarns and 

■ays sf jfs: sz. s SEi 

sias. wit £& - Esrr™' 

and bring it better at the next lesson. t).. nrit l. , ) . 

Next time, however, the study went no to ounih whe “ 3 eXtfa ess u °f 

better, and Massart reprimanded Wien- he » 1 ’•* necess \ r - v to 

iawski sharply. “You are getting lazy,” ThTouoik’ r^li ''" T*? th ? r ™^y 
said he, “and all the rest of the boys are H f ' S a' teacher s one 

getting ahead of you.” y ' o 'h J ft and 

“Well,” said the little violinist, “the fact * ether A lood^e i ^ U PUt ^ 
is I have not been doing much with Rode re f of well-prepared 

lately. I have been practicing Paganini’s ? n ? a JL UmnS ° advert,s,n S 

Caprices" a aaUy paper - 

“You had better stick to Rode,” said “ 

Massart, “the Paganini Caprices are much DISPENSING WITH OR- 
too hard for you. Learn Rode and in time CHESTRAS. 

you may possibly work up to Paganini.” I T ;<• nnt vprv ,. , 

This roused young Wieniawski’s ire and orchestra musir-iJnc^ c h rea(1,ng lor 
he requested that he be allowed to play forni a laZ nart thi T m Ti 
one of the Paganini Caprices. Vs the^/mfnag^ hav concluded tit 
teacher, scenting a breakdown and a without nrrhectroc X 
chance for a rebuke before the class, con- season and that several ar , theaters th,s 

Sir in r , d l \Ch™7£: 

first Caprice went famously, to the intense suit. It is all in consequence of the ad- of Massart. “I suppose you can vance in prices made by the New York 
play the, second also,” he said. “Well. I Musicians’ Union, the members of whkh 
will try, responded the boy. The second claim that the rapidly increasing cost of 
caprice also went in fine style, and as his living makes the S 

t.:_ 1 , ,,r• • » mai<es tne advance necessary. 

Wieniawski Other managers are becoming interested 

teacher nodded his head, 
played through to the tenth. 

m a mechanical orchestra, which can be 

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M. O. R.—It seldom happens that the 
forefinger of the right hand becomes sore 
from. pressing against the stick of the 
bow, if the bow is held right and the stick 
is wrapped properly with silver wire so 
that the finger gets a firm grip of the 
stick. The stick should lie against the 
finger midway between the first and sec¬ 
ond joints counting from the top of the 
finger. The skin often becomes thickened 
from the pressure of the stick, and I 
have seen cases of violinists who played 
much, and with a large tone, where a 
lump had formed on the finger where 
the bow rested. In your particular case 
it might be an advantage to consult a 

L. R. C.—Without means of knowing 
how thoroughly you have mastered the 
studies you name, I find it difficult to ad¬ 
vise you what to take next. However, 

1 should think the Kreutzer studies would 
be too difficult without further prepara¬ 
tion. Kayser’s Etudes, Op. 20, Books 1. 

2 and 3, would probably be what would be 
best for you. After you have mastered 
these study the Mazas’ Special Exercises 
and Schradiecks’ Scale Studies. You then 
would, no doubt, be in a position to take 
up Kreutzer. If you have not read the 
little work, The Violin and How to Mas¬ 
ter it, by W. C. Honeyman, you would 
find it of great assistance. 

M. E. G—Unless the passage you en¬ 
close is to be played in extremely slow 
tempo, the best bowing would be to take 
two notes in the down and two in the 
up bow as follows: 

L. L.—In making repairs, the top 
1 back of a violin are removed by 
ng a very thin-bladed knife. Great 
e must be used and considerable ex- 
ience is necessary, so if your violin is 
■aluable one, it might be good economy 
take it to a skillful repairer, instead 
trying to do it yourself. 

,7. E. J.—For accompanying the violin 
: piano should he tuned to internation- 
(low) pitch. The average piani tuner 
»s to earn his money as quickly and 
iily as possible, and will try to avoid 
inging the entire pitch of the piano if 
can get out of it, especially if the 
no to be tuned is very much above or 
ow the required pitch. You must in- 
! that the piano be put to international 
:h, so that the ear of the student may 
•ome accustomed to playing at one 
ch as this facilitates getting good in- 
lation. 2-1 f there is no piano at hand 
get the pitch of the A, a tuning fork- 
pitch pipe can he used. After the A 
obtained, the pupil should lie taught 
tune the other strings of the violin 
it by ear. This is not difficult, as the 
■ soon learns to recognize the interval of 
hs to which the strings of the violin 
. tuned. 3—A combination pitch pipe. 
ri n g the four notes of the violin. G. D, 
and E. can be obtained at any music 
,re but thev are usually made in high 
ch 4—For warm weather use. good 
ic strings are more durable than gut. 

E P. O.—1— About third grade if you 
play them with the position work. 2—In 
the harmonic note you give, the finger 
is placed lightly on the string. If you 
wish to produce the note D, one octave 
above the open D it is played with the 
finger on the D string, exactly in the mid¬ 
dle of the string; if you wish to produce 
the note A, two octaves above the open 
A string, it is played by placing the finger 
on the A string at a point one-quarter 
the length of the entire string from the 
nut. 3—1 cannot give even a guess as to 
whether you could play the compositions 
you name without hearing you play. You 
may have radical defects in your technic 
which would make it useless to attempt 
them until these defects are remedied. 

4—A fairly advanced pupil should play 
music of the fifth and sixth grade. S— 
The composition you send shows a com¬ 
plete lack of knowledge of the rules of 
musical composition. Study composition 
and you will likely succeed. 

A. M. S.—Authorities differ as to th* 
number of Stradivarius violins now in ex¬ 
istence. It has been put hy some at be¬ 
tween 500 and 600. Grove’s dictionary 
even places it at a thousand, hut there is 
really no way -of fixing the exact number. 
Many violins supposed to he genuine 
Strads are really imitations, and there 
may unquestionably he many real Strads 
in out-of-the-way places which are 
not known to authorities and collectors. 
If you are interested in the subject you 
might consult the work, Antonio Stradi¬ 
vari, His Life and Works, by Hill. 

R. A.—The label has nothing to do with 
the question as to whether your violin 
is genuine or not. since any kind of a 
label can be put in any kind of a violin. 
There are a million violins, more or less, 
with Stradivarius labels, scattered all over 
the world. Of these a few hundred are 
genuine and the rest imitations. A gen¬ 
uine Stradivarius violin is worth from 
$5,000 to $10,000, or even $15,000, in the 
case of extremely cho : ce specimens. 

Study the cartoon and articles in the 
Violin Department of Tiif. Etude for 
July, 1913. 

T. R. P —Some violin players are much 
harder on strings than others. The player 
who has pliable muscles and a smooth 
elastic stroke, with which the bow is 
drawn smoothly over the string instead of 
the hair being ground into it. will be able 
to get twice the wear out of a string. 
Some violin players have a rough, jagged 
stroke, which literally saws the string in 
two, and which produces a rough, biting, 
metallic tone, the very opposite of artistic 
quality. Orchestra violinists in small or¬ 
chestras, in which there are only one or 
two violins, are great sinners in this re¬ 
spect, as they try to play as loud as pos¬ 
sible, to make themselves heard above the 
din of the comet, trombone and drums. 
In this they err, since a smooth tone, pro¬ 
duced by perfectly even vibrations, pro¬ 
duces a tone which carries much further 
than a tone made up of scratching and 

F. G. R.—The feeble quality of your 
harmonics and flageolet tones, no doubt, 
comes from one of two causes; either 
you bow them too lightly, or else your 
finger is not placed in exactly the true 
spot to produce the harmonic. To make 
a harmonic ring out clearly, a swift elas¬ 
tic stroke is required, with quite a little 
pressure. If the finger is not at the cor¬ 
rect point on the string, the harmonic 
will not “speak." 

Mail us 45 cent* (money order or 
stamps) for one copy each of 

Regrets and Autumn Thoughts 

ly for teaching; grade 2 and 3. anJ finpe 


Los Angeles, L«l. 


Clean, Cool 

Every summer; ' 
pastime will be a lot 
more delightful if you are pro- B 
tected from the irritating, 
burning effects of the scorching 


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ELCAYA, night and morning, to 
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At every fashionable summer re¬ 
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ELCAYA being used by refined, 
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delightful—keeps you cool and 

| AH Dealers, Nation-Wide, Sell ELCAYA 

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Write to-day for IllaOrated Art 
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Please mention THE ETUDE when addressing 
our advertisers. 




^This hour is dedicated to a beautiful 

It has been < 

the decision of his career in the hands 
of Friedrich Wieck—her letter to YVieck 
doses thus: “AH rests on your decision, 
the peace of a loving mother, the whole 
happiness for life of a young and inex¬ 
perienced man, who lives but in a higher 

sphere, and will have nothing to do with _ 

irOIH me uunas ot great 

p wf £*< i-» ,„<■ *. 

worjd was given another tone-poet, ar- 0 nce within the doors of mv ho»r r 
dent, impulsive, sensitive and eager. must not permit one momcnt ' “ 1 
Schumann’s works have the individuality ness or indifference. ue " 

that only genius can attain. He is the This hour is short and returns to me 

apart for me that I 
i.v learn to know and understand the 

messages from the minds of 

founder of a distinct style i 
“King of the Romanticists.’’ 

music, the 



TO ROBERT SCHUMANN-LAND. compositions, supplying the missing parts 
It’s a different land because Robert at the piano, pressed his playmates into 
Schumann was so different. You will service, and gave performances with 
find that difference all along the way, their help. He found one very congenial 
and when you grow up to play his larger companion among the schoolboys with 
works you will feel it more and more. whom he played four-hand arrangements Children’s faces seem to hover all Muses and Fates but sold™ t ,, 
Supposing we take a train for of the great symphonies; so you see even about the Album for the young. No combined ’ 

Zwickau this fine summer morning; first at this early age he came to know the composer sets us romancing as Schu- 

of all, it is quite unlike the quiet place masters well. ., . , 

t> . 1 , r .. mann does; certainly no one seems to 

Robert knew as a boy. Now, it is big Many musicians made famous jour- have the c VrTinathv for the whimc 
and bustling with forty thousand in- neys,-Handel, Liszt, Beethoven,-jour- . f l , / an ‘ l 

habitants and eighty coal mines in the neys that seem to have marked the turn- °° aS °' C 

vicinity. The birth house of Robert ing-point in their careers. An event 

If you do i 

J o Ir ** u,vu /Ill CVCI1L < « • « * 

Schumann is a rather plain and homely never to be forgotten was a journey Rob- snou d l)egln 

play Schumann you 
point of technical diffi¬ 

culty, with the Album for the Young. 
ughboring town of Carlsbad* to These forty-three little pieces range from 
grade II to grade IV. To begin with the 

l grade II, we may try Mel- 

house with a medallion of Schumann ert Schumann made with his father 
shining in the sunlight. the neighboring town of Carlsbad „ 

Supposing it were about 1809 instead hear the great pianist, Ignaz Moscheles. 
of to-day. Robert’s father would be in This gave him a zest for piano study 
his bookshop turninj the pages of some which he had never felt before. During ody and the gay Soldier’s March, Littl, 
rare book, or perhaps he would be mak- his whole life he held Moscheles’ works Humming Bird and the dignified Chora! 
ing a translation of Byron or Scott. He in the greatest reverence. To go up a step we may take The Har- 

loved the works of English writers. vcst Song. The Wild 'Rider and The 

Frau Schumann would be engaged at BUSY study years. Poor Orphan, and The Merry Farmer 

home with the five young Schumanns The father delighted in his son’s best beloved by most voung plavers 

You would find Robert, the youngest of talent; he fostered it in every possible More difficult is the Sicilian while the 

the family, at the piano improving for way, and accordingly made preparations piece caIled Sanla C/a „, which mi ht bc 
Robert dearly loved to make up tunes for him to study with a great master „ it j c i . ... ® .!. 

about people and things, putting into Carl Maria von Weber. Weber was’ ca [' td Schumannesque, ,s still more d.ffi- 
tone their characteristics as a painter ready and willing to guide the studies CU *' 

shows them in pictures or a writer in of the young genius; but for some rea- Appropriate pictures may be used to 
words. Frau Schumann stops to listen son the plan was never carried through aoantag e to illustrate these little 
.-i_ _ . . . . . ? ' poems. Anderson s Cloister Rnvc 


Existing here in amity we find— 

Near to thy cradle keeping watch they 

Directing fondly thy precocious aim; 

Exalted zeal soon led thee to the goal, 

Laboring with pure integrity of soul; 

Sweet was thy tune, thy fancy warm 
and chaste, 

Strict wast thou to the mission thou’dst 

Onward still striving, till, how soon, 

Heaven called thee to its own seraphic 

Never canst thou, bright favorite, from 
remembrance pass. . a J 


Many strange things happen to com- 

»viuo. i i«u uvuuniaiui oiwpa iu naivii u«. was never carried tnrougn. . . , posers when little girls and boys com- 

and shakes her head warningly, for she In sharp contrast to his father’s loving 5”^?! f. S0 " s u/ot ster Boys for menc e to write about them. Here is what 

j n sympathy with such nonsense; guidance was the mother’s opposition to w® C a' Adan * , °f Da y for Thc Esther had to sav can you tell where 
she does not approve of music music as a profession, and when RnberfN Merr ? I 'l nner J. V elasquez s Don Balta .' 

for The Rider's Story, Dupre’s Be¬ 
fore the Storm fits exactly the bustling 
theme of the Harvest Song, while 
Greuze’s Broken Pitcher is thoroughlv in 
tune with First Loss. Van Dyck's Man 
Armor is in perfect accord with thi 

indeed, she does not approve of music music as a profession, and when Robert’s 
for young Robert, but his father does, father died the whole light of the world 
Consequently, Robert plays on the fine went out for the boy. No one seemed to 
new piano his father has bought him. understand him, no one sympathized 
In Robert’s day Zwickau was such a with his aspirations or seemed to corn- 
small place that a piano teacher was hard prehend his ability, least of all his 
to find. There was one who gave les- mother and his guardian who seconded 
sons, Herr Kuntzsch, the church organ- the mother in her objections to music 
ist, an earnest old-fashioned fellow who as a career. Robert was now adrift on 
would be entirely forgotten to-day if it a sea of uncertainty; systematic study 
were not for his famous pupil. was given up, well directed work was 

This kindly old teacher was self- wanting; but he continued to play, to 
taught, and it was not long before Rob- compose and to read poetry, 
ert knew as much as he did. It was Time passed, and it was decided that 
Herr Kuntzsch, however, who prophesied he should go to Leipsic as a student of 
that Schumann would attain to fame and law at the University. He dutifully 
immortality, and that in him the world obeyed but little was acomplished during n ] any stone wa,ls of difficulties; there are 
would possess one of its greatest musi- the first half of the year, for Schumann a ways Waterloos in every piece, but 
cians. Robert Schumann never forgot was in a gloomy frame of mind. He . SOn L e way we , Seem to find more of them 
his first master; he wrote him many played the piano, wrote a few letters and p Schumann’s so-called easy pieces. As 
charming letters, and later dedicated to read his favorite author, Jean Paul. His R ?! )e , rt Schumann says: “The pound 
him his Studies for the Pedal Piano. music brought him into society, and he 7 • ,las g ' ven y° u ’ improve it 

soon became the center of an artistic cir- falthfully - There is no end to learning.” 

SCHUMANN’S HAPPY YOUTH. rf e . At the home of a University pro- 

Robert was a merry active child, the fessor he met the man who was destined 
leader of all the games at school. He to wield a great influence over him. This 
was an excellent student, and it was not was the famous piano teacher, Friedrich 
very long before he discovered some Wieck. Wieck’s daughter Clara played 

she made mistakes? 

“There were forty-two Bachs and all 
were musicians. Mr. Bach wrote pieces 
for kings and queens, as well as for the 
church. When the kings and queens 
wanted to have a play, Mr. Bach wrote 

... ycucci accora witn tne , ■ - 

Soldier’s March, and Hetherbee’s End of the muslc for jt - He also wr ite funeral 
adrift on the Harvest wiI1 help to illuminate The marches and ones for weddings. He was 
lt - - Reaper’s Song. Meissonier’s Friedland. a great master of his time as well as ot 

1807, is a fitting picture for the War to-day, and is noted the world over. 
Song. Practically all of these pictures 
can be bought in the Perry Collection for 
a few cents a piece. 

Pictures will give some real practical 
hints as to tone color, and help over 


Do you know why the stems of some 
•hy the stems of 

very good reading among the books in the piano remarkably well, and 'Schu- notes turn up and" 

his father’s shop. This stimulated his mann was greatly inspired by her playing others turn down’ 

imagination, and he began to write little He longed to begin lessons with'the Do you know the principle hy which 
plays and poetry. The family and the father. Through the Wieck family and sound is produced in vour XLJ 
neighbors took great interest in these the music-loving students he found Can you write the ssraniti™ , , 

little dramas, and to encourage the lad around him it is quite probable that scending chromatid scale’ d d ^ 

the father built a miniature stage in the young Schumann forgot all about be- Can vou write * t • , 

home, and they were produced there coming a lawyer. The Leipsic residence withbS the?i T 
with the help of friends and school- did much for him in a musical way and Sees? ^ “ d t,1C flat S ' gna ‘ 

mates. Like Wolfgang Mozart. Robert he continued his piano studies with Do you know when a trtol U 

Schumann began to compose little pieces Wieck until he went to Heidelberg, ished/When auemenr^ ’ J 

at an early age. At eleven we find him where it was thought he might have Can von W ni» tt, , , f , , , 

assisting Herr Kuntzsch with an operetta, better advantages in his legal studies. lowing embellishments"’ Trill" * 

accompanying the performance, standing Young Schumann was at bitter war Mordent; Grace note ' ' 

at the piano to do it. with jurisprudence. In a letter to his What 

Zwickau was a d#ll and stupid town mother he says: “My whole life has dominant 

for so talented a hoy; the advancement been a twenty years’ war between poetry Can you play 

he made canie from himself, lie played and prose, or let us say. music and law.'” time? A march ii 
everything he could find, re-arranged Schumann induced his mother to put Can y 


meant by dominant? Sub- 

a waltz in good even 
\ steady rhythm ? 
read simple music readily? 




Freidrich Wieck, Schumann’s father- 
; n-law, believed in thorough and sys¬ 
tematic study. He believed, too, that 
music should be pursued with love and 
not with tears. He made the lesson 
hour a pleasure and not a thing to be 

^insisted that pupils should play 
each hand separately until playing the 
hands together became natural and easy. 

After the hand position was right, then 
the notes were learned. He would say 
that the simplest waltz well played meant 
far more to him than a long and difficult 


He believed that everything should be 
learned faultlessly by heart. 

Practical theory was studied because 
he disliked unmusical pupils. Every 
student must know enough of harmony 
to improvise a prelude in the key in 
question before beginning to play the 

He took great care not to raise ex¬ 
pectations in pupils who were not tal¬ 
ented or who were unable to realize their 

He laid great stress upon hand posi¬ 
tion and tone production. He would say 
that the best instrument had a beautiful 
tone only when the player knew how to 
produce it. 

Poor but talented pupils he instructed 
free of charge. 

, Clara Schumann, his daughter, was his 
best pupil, and spread the fame of the 
Wieck method so that pupils came to 
him from distant countries. 


Find out— 

• What great German poet heard Mozart 
play in Frankfort. 

What is a motet. 

What great composers were living when 
Schubert was born. 

What is a mazurka. 

What suggested The Flying Dutchman 
to Wagner. 

What is meant by concerted music. 

What was Handel’s last oratorio. 

What castle stands in the same town 
where Bach was born. 

What composer used this castle in one 
of his operas. 

What famous school was founded by 

What was Schumann’s first large com¬ 

In what country was Chopin born. 

What does “Standchen” mean. 

What is the nationality of Bach. Scar¬ 
latti, Verdi, Chopin, Weber, Berlioz, Liszt, 

What can you play of Schubert’s. 

What is a spinet, a harpsichord, a clavi¬ 


Ruth never worked seriously; she 
scattered thrpugh piles of music. Noth- 
mg was ever played well, technic, etudes, 
Pieces, all had the same mussy sound. 
Ruth was popular, she went everywhere 
and she played all the time. She learned 
and forgot her pieces in a day. She was 
going to college in the fall and vvas to 
Jake music too, but when the music 
b,a nks came to he filled in, Ruth came to 
me with one of her most charming 
f»l«. “Oh. you do it for me—I don’t 
know what I’ve had.” “With your help.” 

said. So we worked all that summer 
and in September Ruth filled in the 
Wanks herself. “Well, who would have 
'nought that music was such a serious 
1 ’ng. Why, I’ve had to work harder 
over this than ‘lit’ or ‘math,’ but it’s 
b «n worth it.” 











Publisher’s Notes 

A Department of Information Regarding New 
Educational Musical Works 




Order Early. Every indication 

points to a busy 
Fall season and without doubt the music 
teaching world will enjoy its share of 
prosperity. This means that teachers 
everywhere should make preparations for 
an active season and in each case ought 
to be prepared with the necessary music 
and studies with which to begin the Fall 
work. A good start is of prime im¬ 
portance and when teaching actually be¬ 
gins it is a serious drawback to be 
obliged to wait for the needed material. 
We therefore write this little reminder 
in the hope that all teachers will take 
time as much “by the forelock” as pos¬ 
sible and send in if not the entire sea¬ 
son’s order, one at least large enough 
to meet the first requirements. In the 
Fall it is a good plan to order specially 
needed things separately from the “ON 
SALE" or selection orders; the latter 
being so varied in their make up, require 
extra time and care in their execution 
and sometimes teachers are obliged to 
wait for important items while the less 
urgently needed part of the order might 
be shipped a little later if ordered sepa¬ 
rately. In any case it is quite important 
to order early and not to wait until the 
music is actually wanted for use. 

Mail Order With the opening 

Music Supplies. of another school 

season just at 
hand we draw to the attention of every 
teacher and every school of music the fact 
that a great majority of teachers and 
schools do a part if not all of their music 
buying by mail. The house of Theodore 
Presser has made a specialty of this work 
for a quarter of a century by allowing the 
best discount in every case, by publishing 
educational material of the greatest value, 
by filling the orders promptly on the day 
received from a stock second to none in 
the country, and by making it the all 
important work of the entire Iwsmess to 
supply the profession with the greatest 
help possible as far as material and advice 
are concerned-all of these facts and more 
have produced an organization of immeas¬ 
urable importance to the teaching profes¬ 
sion of the whole country. 

An ON SALE system based on the 
above principles carried out upon a most 
liberal plan, the straining of every ettort 
at all times to make every move of vital 
advantage to the teacher, has given us at 
least a portion of the trade of the great 
majority of the music buying public 

We are equipped to supply the needs of 
every teacher and school in tlmcounto 
and Canada; we do supply not a ft* 
music schools in many other parts of tlic 

world—everywhere in fact where the 
English language is spoken. 

The ON SALE package of our prints, 
the receipt of our New Music ON SALE 
packages each month, would alone be of 
great assistance even though daily orders 
are sent to the local dealer. Within a 
certain radius the daily orders are at¬ 
tended to by such a house as ours more 
promptly and perhaps more intelligently 
than they can be elsewhere. The very 
nature of the music business, which in 
fact requires a library of sheet music and 
music books of immense proportions, 
makes it almost impossible for any but a 
few large houses to be able to cater suc¬ 
cessfully to the needs of thc music teacher 
and the music school. 

Any of our catalogs are free for the 
asking; our system of dealing is explained 
in them; either send for first catalogs, or, 
better still, try us with one order. Wc 
open an account with any responsible per¬ 
son; our terms are most liberal. 

Offers in Advance These Publisher’s 

of Publication. Notes contain such 

offers every month. 
Our regular customers, and there are tens 
of thousands of them, know what the 
Advance of Publication offer is. We find 
that there are a great many who do not 
understand this term which has become a 
known phrase with us. In order to intro¬ 
duce our works we give our patrons an 
opportunity to buy a copy, if they order 
it in advance of publication, at about thc 
price of production—sometimes less than 
the first cost of manufacture. In this way 
we place meritorious works before the 
people who will need them and at very 
little cost, so that it is an advantage on 
both sides. Our books become known 
where they are most needed, and the 
teachers become acquainted with the lat¬ 
est and most modern ideas in their respec¬ 
tive lines. The point of all this is that 
an Advance of Publication work cannot 
be delivered the moment thc order is re¬ 
ceived; thc work may not appear from 
the press for one. two or even six months 
after it is ordered, but it will lie sent thc 
day it does appear from thc press. 

Final Introductory. On another page 
Offers. of these Notes will 

be found a large 
number of offers called “Final Introduc¬ 
tory Offers.” They are thc works which 
have appeared from our press during thc 
past twelve months and we give this last 
opportunity to obtain one copy only at a 
low introductory rate. These works are 
all published, and will lie shipped the day 


If cash ; 



Price 75 Cent* 

ByTHEO o( elementary instruction. Thc material used 

T HE latest work ’ f • presented in an attractive manner. It is intended 
is entirely Fe»h and ’. pre*e ^ of k ; nderMrtcn . A very large 

for fe veriest beginne Questions and answers are given to 

note is used in tte «dy £ « of the^boot „ t , vcry 

clinch every sub] ec t_ « ntmc of the work to make it as nearly a 

The utmost ; 5 h "”ible to make. A trial of this new book is 

oerfect Beginner s dook \ r . j__i *Wnonrarv mane 

” -0.1." bv all 

IheuiniTOi «.v . oss ;k| e to make. \ tnai oi *• 

perfect Beginners Book «o ^ , Q wilh elementary piano instruction, 

earnestly solicited Dy a 

i :u»ral discounts. __ . nul.j 

panics the order the jpF scnt I ,r>st ' 
paid; if cash do£{|^t^fijmipany the 
order and it is to IlijKcSIon regular 
account, then the ftfbpfftatiil charge is 
added. >nt iuod* - 

We cannot but mention again the com¬ 
bination offer in connection with these 
Advance of Publication and Introductory 
Offers. To everyone who orders $2.00 
worth at these low introductory prices we 
will send entirely free a copy of the most 
modern and latest and without doubt thc 
most used piano instruction took, the 
“Beginner's Method,” by Theodore 

Get the It is our constant 

Best Service. desire to serve 

our patrons with 
the utmost promptness and accuracy and 
we succeed to a high degree, but this is 
only possible as a result of a well de¬ 
veloped system on our part and a cer¬ 
tain amount of cooperation on the part 
of customers. A plainly written, straight¬ 
forward order is always handled more 
speedily than one that is imperfectly ex¬ 
pressed or carelessly written. When wc 
are asked to send "another took like the 
last one,” it means a decided delay as it 
takes time to look up previous records 
—time and expense that should he saved 
by plainly naming the book or article 
wanted; then there are the several daily 
orders for “Czerny, Book One;’’ these 
indeed are a source of much worry, for 
who may always guess correctly which 
of the many Czerny studies, exercises, 
methods, etc., the customer had in mind 
when writing “Book One?” lt is need¬ 
less to cite a long list of examples of 
indefinitely written orders; we merely 
wish to impress teachers with the im¬ 
portance of expressing their wants in 
as few words as possible yet without 
leaving anything open to a hazarded in¬ 
terpretation. It is also advisable to write 
all orders on sheets or cards separately 
from any matters,of general correspon¬ 
dence. Sometimes important inquiries re¬ 
quiring immediate replies are appended 
to orders and as the order portion of any 
communication receives attention first 
thc other matters are consequently de¬ 
layed. We arc happy to say that most 
of our patrons do not need this advice. 

“Old Fogy” In a recent issue 

Attracting Much of the Boston Nun- 

Attention. day Herald, Philip 

Hale, the well- 
known American critic, devotes upwards 
of three columns to an enthusiastic review 
of our recently published work. Old Fogy. 
Mr. Hale goes so far as to state that thc 
authorship of the took, which has torn 
carefully concealed hy the publishers, is 
easily traceable to Mr. James Hunekcr 
himself. Mr. Hunekcr unquestionably 
wrote the introduction to the took, but 
as to its authorship the publishers must 
remain non-committal. The wide range of 
revolutionary, as well as conventional, 
opinions delightfully expressed in the 
book cannot fail to make it very' inter¬ 
esting reading to hundreds of Etude 
friends. The price of the attractively 
bound volume is $1.00. 

Theo. Presser Co. Thc music dealers 

Publications. of tlic country are 

recognizing more 
and more the advisability of keeping on 
hand a stock of thc publications of Theo¬ 
dore Presser Co. A number of our works, 
because of their intrinsic worth, are found 
in almost every music store; a great many 
of our works not so well known are not 
on hand when called for. Some of our 
works have been found so good that they 
have toon flattered with many imitations. 
We only ask that those of our patrons 
who desire to purchase our publications 
nearer home insist on getting mir editions, 
and if they cannot get our edition or the 



the buyer ^he manufacture - The plan is an original one of great aid to the teacher. The reason for it is to introduce the works to those interested No off* , 

, of course, not returnable. Order by offer number. The books will be delivered as they appear on the market. Send all orders to Theo Pr ev< ^^appointed 

No. 1. Octave Studies. By A. Orth. Op. 18. I""”^jyj in jsj ew ru,.,™.* , -r ’^ a >Pa. 



advanced players, 
ides and 

^Publication st udies suited 

Cash Price Lving in * h <? 6th and <tn 

Postpaid ’ be J' ond - These studies t _ _ _ 

to follow the octave studies u & 
Czerny, Vogt, Sartorio and others. 

is one of the most important at- 
danoforte technic. 

No. 2. Two Part Songs for Women’s Voices 

4 HC Advance of A collection of bright, melodious 
I |_ — Publication an , <1 singable numbers for women's 
I a Cash Price voic , es - adapted for use in schools, 
X Postoaidr seu Jiaaries, for high school choruses 

roatpaidt and for women’s clubs. The very 
. .. , . possible material lias been drawn 

*' le making of this book, our resources for this pur¬ 
pose being unexcelled. It is a book of convenient size in the 
usual octavo form. 

No. 3. Chaminade Album 

k C Myioc# of A compilation of the most popular 
■ —. Publication P ieoes 0b the celebrated French woman 
Ca.h Price. c 5S p ? ser ». a i!. SreaUy revised and 
PoatDaid A Chaminade Album is in 

p * itself a superior collection of the 
. , very best class of drawing room 

music. This book will contain such popular favorites as 
and other* Dance ’ Seren nde,” “Air de Ballet," “Flatterer” 

20 ' 


The Combination Offer which we usually make is pre¬ 
sented this year in a different but very simple form: 

To every buyer of a total of ?2.00 worth of the works 
mentioned on these pages Nos. 1 to 66, we will present 
I* REE OF CHARGE a copy of the Beginner’s Book, 
the most popular as well as the most modern instruction 
book on the market to-day. Issued a year ago the sale 
has been phenomenal; many thousand already in use, hun¬ 
dreds of commendatory letters from teachers everywhere. 
BEGINNER’S BOOK—School of the Pianoforte 
By Theodore Presser. Price, 75 cents 
, ,, J r ? al . I{es ‘ UD ® r ' s Book > suitable to be taken up by a 
child just out of the Kindergarten or by the youngest 
student. The first twenty-odd pages do not go beyond 
the five finger positions in each hand. There are plenty 
ot writing exercises and questions and answers’ to famil¬ 
iarize the pupil with everything that has been presented. 

facts ar e introduced one at a time, in the 
plainest possible manner, and the book progresses logi- 
tally and surely. All the material is fresh and pleasing, 
presented in an attractive manner. 

25 j 

No. 4. Mozart’s Sonatas, Vol. II 


No. 8. Schubert’ 


Sonata It 
special n< 

No. 5. 

20 ' 

far more 
some coll 

No. 6. 

20 ' 

This volume will be similar in style 
“Ad make-up to Mozart’s Sonatas, 
C»sb Price Volu , rae u contains in all 10 

Posted numbers, including some of the most 
rostpaia. important sonatas, namely the one in 
„ , , „ , £ major and the celebrated Fantasie 

Sonata in C minor. The volume is handsomely printed on 
special new plates, carefully revised and edited. 

No. 5. New Vocal Album 

a c Advance of This collection, printed from large 
■a; publication and handsome plates, contains some 
r,.u Pr ;„ ot our very best songs, chiefly 

rrice, an< J »-.,v»x„l., v - --* 


s Piano Album 

. or , One of the most popular of all col- 

— Publication “ ptl " n , s ' containing some of the finest 
Cash Pric- , Schubert s pianoforte works, ln- 
P „,.„ .. eluding the Impromptus, Op. 90 and 
P ’ 2,H' 142, "foments Musical, Op. 94,” 

the T 8 ''t Tt f ?M a large and handsome vo 1 uinc?'go11cu'up S in 
the ^ e mng PO o S f 1 Fr e anzUs e z r t: Car<?fU " y reVlSed bUt foI,owIng 

No. 9. Vaccai Practical Vocal Method 

1 c Advance of This is one of the standard vocal 
«-us—=— methods used by a majority of teach- 
ers. It is based on the old Italian 
school of singing. Our new edition 
has been carefully revised and edited 
” a prominent and successful teacher. 

Pianists - By H. Cramm.’ 

tion*huok^aml *the 

learning the staff notatiou. thl The '‘pU^e^s'a/V^ 
as tuneful as it is possible to make them • l ««4 

same time the book is really helpful and l™ C ttvt tte 

No. 13. Great Pianists on the Art of Piano- 
forte Playing. 

r Advene® of new book is the result of - 

1 Pvblic.tion unmt number of personal confer^ 
C.d, Price, " “ducted by James Francis Cook! 
Postpaid. ''‘I 1 * .Alp gl jS*'P t * ,v ‘ng pianists of 
our time. Each chapter is devoted 

a portrait and a biography P and‘supplemented by*SmrtloM 
in Btyle, expression, technic, touch, etc. all oTwEtS 
answered in the text. To have such men as de Pad™.™ 
I!i ,V "";f ni,10ff ’ Hofmann, Godowsky, Baue? Th 5 
wenka and others answer your questions In a definto 

masters SESS&J 0 a ln iUterpreta «°“ 

No. 14. Consolations and Love Dreams. 
By F. Liszt. 

C Advance of This new volume contains s< 

-- —-*•---Tffsaa 

50 ! 

20 s 

some collections. 

No. 6. New Pipe Organ Book 

a f Advance of A collection in popular style, eon- 
* - Publication tnin 'ng pieces of intermediate diffi- 
C.«hPric. t ' ult ? r chiefly; just such a book as 
aan nrice, goo( j organists cun pick up at any 
lime and find in it a piece suitable 
„ , for almost any ordinary occasion. 

All the numbers will be bright and attractive and melodious 
in character, printed from special large plates. 


The exert 

No. 10. 

25 s 

No. 10. Salon Album for Piano Solo. Vol. I. 

- - C AdTan “ °t “ew edition^ of the cele- 

popular original piano pieces 
-by I.iszt, namely, the six shorter pieces 
known as “Consolations” and tl“ 
larger nocturnes known as 
_ . , . , Dreams.” It Is convenient as welUs 

economical to have all these pieces In the one volume: j 
the numbers are carefully edited and revised with the acre 
on!?’ dugerlng and pedaling, and the edition is a haadson 

No. 15. Operatic Four Hand Album 

C Advance of Operatic transcript 
p ’ ’ 

20 ' 


1 the 

Jperatic transcriptions foi 
> particularly effective, s 
tally possible to arrange 

volume i . _ 

cent collections which h 
successful, namely, “Standard Opera Album,” 

i modeled upon c 

r piano solo, 

No. 7. New Gradus ad Parnassum—Various p g rst ^ n „ tri i Ct n 0 ? Book for the 

orated Salon Album which is found in 

Cash Price,, pl e cer P io' a d ^aw,^-^om It sWe ta b l y S the su ^.- fuI ’ ““^ly, “Standard Opera _ .___ , 

Postpaid. following well-known writers • Badar- ? n , d °P« r «Oc Selections for Violin and Plano.” It will eon- 

zewska, (Soria, LefPbure Wclv Kontskt , *2 gcm» from all the standard operas, arranged in th“ 

Leybach, Ascher, Ketterer, Richards, Wallace. Artiti A i “ .. . .“ 

» ave ^>een playerl very widely and have‘stood 
‘ ‘ edition is superior *- " 

t of time. Our n 

best possible manner, all of medium difficulty. 

all respects. No. 16. 160 Eight Measure Exercises. 


Difficulties. By I. Philipp 

C Advance of 'fhe final volume of the series. 

D..LI:__- ’ * 

I— Publication th,s number will be found exempli- 
Caah Price ,i, lltions of al1 th e technical problems 
" .. ’ and passages which are not included 
itpaia. in any 0 f the preceding volumes, such 
as interlocking passages, crossed 
hands, leaps, skips and bravura, etc. 

Pianoforte. By E. B. Wagner. Part 

- C Ad, ' --- ' 


' i edfOon of this standard 
instruction book is superior in all re- 
spects. Wagners “Instruction Book” 
the most popular of its 
win remaln So for 
mine. The material 

.Haa-J . • K 1 lUC niOS 

i(paid. dass and probably v 

emtfrage* riie^puififf? CflV “ lated “wKt’SSTS 

book or study they want that they order readtng of this column; we know a great fought many a hard battle to s 
direct from us, giving us the name of the many teachers have found many things teacher gets his rights Just n 
•es not carry what they de- here that have helped them in their work mncbwIL _ g ". _ J , “ 

By C. Czerny. Op. 821. 

c Advance of °ne of the celebrated study works by 
— Publication Czerny suitable for intermediate and 
r ... p . moderately advanced piano practice. 

ash “nee, \ s mentioned in the title the studies 
Postpaid. are all eight measures in length hot 
. each one is complete in itself, and 

there are ltSO of them. Practically every technical devlrt 
to be met with in ordinary playing will he found included 
among these studies. At the same time they are pleasing 


dealer who does n 

■ that the public school work, the generous use of 
r you are duets, the copious but never redundant 


sire. Our service in this regard is prompt, We are more interested in that than in next sea cm. Toil • ™o — -• 

our discounts the best obtainable; any- selling these articles and miobt we ficct vi ’ c e us Just a ^ out w l lat y° ur portion of finger training exercises t 

,l,ing « ON SALE .he san,,’ p ,L ,ha, advi« help" at hS.'S dS,i« £ SlA' ” iU ««■» *1 

as if bought outright; our terms the most the editor of The Etude or anv of the « i« k d ° f mU ? ,C you need J ust grading—in fact, one hundred and one 

liberal. We stand ready to supply our staff can give to anyone on any subject surprisedT fi d* ? 0SS1 ^ e ’ Y p u will be things which such a book should contain 

publications in the way which the teachers will be cheerfully and promptfy given, capacity of vour W ^d^ 6 £ US,cal buy ,! ng ~ mak e the Beginner’s Book in the Sc ** 

find most convenient, but we do insist We refer to any subject connected in anv ImroctJi ... y0Ur ,. C ,°l ar become ® when of the Pianoforte, by Theodore: Pre • 

that when a teacher wants the publica- way with music music teaching or the f T Vlt l u 1 8 ' Write us regarding any so far in advance of similar works of 
tions of Theodore Presser Co. that they music business ’ g ^ ^ or your future kind that very extensive adoption of Ik 

get them. Don’t accept “something just *. ’ and we W1 “ treat y° ur inquiry ex- work is insured. This month our rea 

as good” when the Presser Edition is Making Your Dollar Every dollar vou vo/ 38 ^ W ° U d & personal cal1 frora f rs llave an opportunity to secure ’ 

wanted. Earn More earn tbmn.b y book without cost, as it is being give 

Reauisites for the There are tw0 Musica l Value music is a kind of The New Flattering as were a premium to all who order to the n e 

Musk Teacher ™ lumns of adver ' You. filanci!! slorage “ B «ginner*s Book.” ^ early or- of $2.00 from our Advance Offers o 

tising matter else- battery represent By Theo - Presser. ders for thls work, from .our Introductory Offers. Th 

where in this issue which are of particular ing your accumulated energy. Giving increasing s,,™ r i he con ‘ inu . ed and uIar price of the book is 75 CentS- 

interest at this season of the year—we music lessons is hard, trying, nerve-rack- oublication °l u W ° rk S,nCe ltS ^ all 

I2LK121** StS M,s “ d ^ 

Every dollar you earn deserves 

i of the year- 

night say three columns. The first 
Piano Instruction Books. We ask a care¬ 
ful reading of this column; three of the 
most used instruction books of the day 
are included in the list. The second col¬ 
umn is that of Primary Piano Studies, power of seeds. Planted ... v ..^ 

We want to say, in connection with this they bring large returns; planted 
md other advertisements in this issue, wrong soil they are wasted. The spirit solid rock'of 

. < / r , • .-me general ens 

made to do ser'vice for you'."iis produt — ° ■ °° k ’ t ° ^° Se who have 11 

. . - --- placard which we have prepared to' «"» 

tive power varies like the nm/WF See ° **!» 1S r t0 state tbat k * s ver y ^ ar * n studios for the purpose of com 
l V l. P0 7! r .; ar,e v, S . 1,ke . Pe 7 ved f ; om being the conventional the Missed Lesson evil. The placard^ 

the right soil rehash of time-old material. Quite to printed in two colors on heavy fP 
! ..* th e contrary, the book was dug out of the beveled cardboard. A copy of the ins 
that any or all of our works are sent of the Theodore Presser Comoanv from rnnarllm: • , e ^ pericnce b y harfl > long, tion is printed in another part ot 
ON SALE-that is. returnable. They the very sta£ hal £«XL Z COnsc,e " t ' ous labor a "d thought. On Etude. The price of the placardI * « 
will be charged at the best professional teacher’s dollar bring as large a reUirn as mee^ wffh r n Pag F ^ experienced teacIler cents ’ The same inscription is P n ‘ d . 
rate and accepted if returned. possible. We are constantfy striving to wbth W ’ th pract,ca1 ’ common-sense ideas, slips of paper of a size suitable for^. 

The third column is that of Requisites give more and more value for every somelne dl excIal „ m > “ Why didn’t ing out with bills and statement^ 
for the Music Teacher (published on penny invested in music supplies with us Y of intmHi^ th ^ * befo . re ’ The liberal use come in packages of 100 for " ked up 
the third cover page) and here will be We have prospered because we have con- with letlerT^f ThTaTnb'b The fact that tbe . statement t ^ ache rs ^ 
found almost everything connected with sidered the real welfare of the evervdav note, t , ■ a1phabet , lnstea d of by a large organization of teac . s a !l 

the teacher’s work in the way of station- teacher and student. We have always in- S2 notation r pl ° yment ° f end ° rSed by r eP r ese n tat,^v-e t:eacl^ 

ery and supplies. We ask for a careful vited honest competition, and we have introduced in S iding unce C ° Untry emphaS 


the etude 



O NGE each year we give a last opportunity to get one copy of our latest publica¬ 
tions at an introductory price equal to about the cost of manufacture. Defin¬ 
able, postpaid, immediately. On y one copy at these prices. A most favorable 
offer since many ot our patrons are already acquainted with the works. 

No. 17. Mastering the Scales and Arpeg¬ 
gios. By James Francis Cooke 

This eighty-two page, full- ( 4 DC 
. size music book gives the vl “O 
greatest essentials of all 1 =: 

’ piano technic in complete Res. 
logical, practical, progressive price 

form. It contains all the 

standard scale and arpeggio material used in the foremost 
ronservatories of the world and also a vast amount of ad¬ 
ditional material, which makes it far more comprehensive 
and systematic than any work of its kind. It may be used 
liy any teacher, with any system without previous study. 

No. 18. Instructive Four Hand Album. 

By A. Sartorio. 

There is always a demand np 
lory for teacher and pupil duets, til'-" 

These new ones are partic- «J\/ = 
ularly bright and melodious. Re*. 

Although the pupil's part is pries 

always easy, the teacher’s 

_o interesting, and the duets are so well made that 

the combined effect is most pleasing. There are 20 duets 
in all, carefully arranged in progressive order. 

No. 19. The Vocal I nstructor. By E. J. Myer. 

Designed to be the most £ 4 An 
, direct and helpful work of *P | "tl 

its type and scope. A 1 

practical guide to artistic Reg, 

methods of singing. Mr. E. price 

J. Myer, for many years 

one of the foremost voice teachers, has embodied in this 
new work the experience of a lifetime. The Vocal In¬ 
structor of Myer not only contains notation exercises, but 
also ^numerous cuts made from photographs taken especially 

No. 20. The New Organist. By George 
E. Whiting. 

p A collection for the pipe $4 CA 

■ _ Introductory organ. This volume con- V I 

r , _ . tains original compositions, X Z— 

Cash Price, as wel j as transcriptions Re*. 

and arrangements from price 

standard works by classic 

and modern masters, all the fruit of Mr. Whiting’s years of 
experience as church and concert player and composer. No 
man in America is better fitted for the compilation of 
such a book. Large oblong plates, handsomely bound in cloth. 

No. 21. Operatic Selections for Violin and 
Piano. By F. A. Franklin 

C Nothing has proven more n aP 

I-._ j _._ intpppstincr to violinists than 

50 - 

20 ' 

part is si 

DU S* 

/J A— Introductorj 

nil c> * hp "“’ 

V V Postpaid. 


CONDITIONS ® rckr . b - Dffer Number. Cash to accompany all orders. Postage 
additional when charged to regular account. At the following 
prices these works are not returnable. Special prices are good only for September, 1913. 
Sends all order to Theo. Presser Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 


The Combination Offer which we usually make is pre¬ 
sented this year in a different but very simple form: 
lo every buyer of a total of $2.00 worth of the works 
Pi^ 8 - Nos - 1 to 66. we will present 
FREE OF CHARGE a copy of The Beginner’s Book, 
the most popular as well as the most modern instruction 
book on the market to-day. Issued a year ago the sale 
has been phenomenal; many thousand already in use, hun¬ 
dreds of commendatory letters from teachers everywhere. 
BEGINNER’S BOOK—School of the Pianoforte 
By Theodore Presser. Price, 75 cents 
-t real Beginner's Book, suitable to be taken up bv a 
i ust Kindergarten or by the youngest 
student. The first twenty-odd pages do not £•» beyond 
the five-finger positions in each band. There are plenty 
of writing exercises and questions and answers to famll- 
iarize the pupil with everything that has been presented. 

Slusical facts are Introduced one at a time. In tbe 
plainest possible manner, and the book progresses logl 
cally and surely. All the material Is fresh and pleasing, 
presented in an attractive manner. 

No. 27. Old Fogy. 



20 ' 


oks Re *- 

By James Huneker. 

tils opinions and gro- e 4 aa 

_ Introductory tesques. A collection of 

r . D . exceptionally original crlll- ■ = 

C«hP, K ., cal Observations from the R»i 

Postpaid. pen of one of tbe best prico 

known musical writers of 
the present day. Edited and with an Introduction by James 
Huneker. Old Fogy Is one of the most successful ana highly 
lauded of all the music critics of the present day. In the 
character of Old Fogy he has written his most Intimate 
thoughts of tile greet masters of today and ><-torda>. their 
works, their lives, their ideas upon teaching, and taken 
altogether is one of tbe most frank expressions of opinion 
in print. 

No. 28. Indian Music Lecture. By Carlos 

1 srf-SrWSSOE: 

I r§ Cub Price, preparation of this lecture. 

A Postpaid with the view of making it 

one that could be read In 
whole or part at club meetings, etc. No one w 
qualified to do this than Carlos Troyer. savant, 
and explorer, who has lived among, the Indians 


_ market is flooded with books 

Postpaid . of this kind ; they, however, 

seem to lack the proper 
selection or arrangement. Mr. Franklin, recognizing the 
necessity of a superior book of this kind, has produced this 
most excellent work. The violin part Is about Grade 3 
■inii the piano accompaniment about second and third grade. 

No. 22. Marks’ Writing Book. 

m /vf. A handy form of writing book. It 

I i Introductory contains alternate pages ruled on one 
11 p.;. side for music writing and on the op- 

X Vf » ” , ' Posite page for hand-writing, so that 

w Postpaid. the musical examples may be written 

opposite to and in connection with the 
ro " oarin " thereon. Tbe book also contains directions as 
10 inp Proper manner of writing the characters and signs. 

No. 23. Musical Zoo. By D. D. Wood. 

. *7CC. 


No. 29. Indian Songs. By Thurlow Lieurance. 

~ This volume contains a t. of 

k C Inlrodortc, *1 ff 

dies which have been per- X r— 
sonally transcribed and nr R«i. 

ranged bv Mr. Lieurance, i»“ 

who resided for a time with 
the Indians with that purpose In view. They are excep¬ 
tionally striking and characteristic numbers, well within tbe 
range of tbe average singer, and specialty adapted for re¬ 
cital purposes with a tasteful but not difficult accompani¬ 
ment. The volume contains sonic Interesting literary niatter re¬ 
garding Indians, their customs, music, etc., with Illustrations. 

No. 30. Popular Recital Repertoire for 

the Pianoforte. 

Aptr ®i 

Introductory tend 

LO c “ hp 7- SES 

V Postpaid. writ 

teacher and pupil. These *7 C 

.. .. "“ d . I vjr- 

romarkably interesting and 
characteristic pieces were 
written for the composer’s 
, , daughter to fit the various 

, of her early progress on the piano. In the first 
tlio -io’^? the PfP 11 Plays the Primo part, beginning with 
nrLIz. ''and alone in the five-finger position and then 
Si if ln ? by S r ®dual stages until in the final duet the 
! u Pu, having begun to learn the bass clef, plays the Secondo. 

No. 24. The Piano Beginner. By Louis 
G. Heinze. 

A compilation of short ex- 
|_ Introductory ercises intended to^be used 

20 ' 


Schutt’s A la BUn Aimer 
other pieces by popular * - 
such things ““ - ~" 

with many 

) play. 

20 s 

No. 31. Study Pieces in Octaves for 
the Pianoforte. By A. Sartorio. 


Cash Pci 

25 ! 

JIUILC, LJ/ r-h, 

„f •V“lern r '-V.ra , ve ,,l pi;vi;;« $12S 

for Students of Intermediate 1 — 

v>v . _j mastered 

the rudiments. The exercises 
e order from the very beginning and selected 
- works of the standard masters. 

No- 25^ The Pennant—An Operetta. 

Pretty tunes, amusing e 4 QO 
situations, well set up young *r ■ 
men, bright girls tn smart 
frocks, a dance here and 
there, and a spirit of col- ■— 

*crlDHnn , lege “go” is the best de 

Httle pii®? f . I h t e Pennant” This is not one of tbe insip d 
t i that SIna<k ot the cantata when they are really 
fill J 1,0 appn over the footlights. It is a real. P™ < dl- 

p ete * or a short cast, easily rehearsed and produced. 

No - 26. Etudes Melodiques for the 
Pianoforte. By E. Nollet. 

[ Fifteen splendid ^studies. $1 50 

wonting mu wwc particular point 
always Interesting and melodious. 

”• “a. i ne rc 
^1 I— Introductory 


IS 15 


ig y at ‘his very best. 

No. 32. Melodic Piano Studies. By 
Hermann Vetter. 

C anT'bas 7ever V.Ku"n7 CC 

_ Introductory fn this count,y. The / D= 


, similar in style and grade 

CodiPri.. to Heller's well-known Op. 

„ . ‘ ’ 45, but more modern and 

Poitpoid. f ar more interesting In 

* 'a Itself u ™usleal content. Each study^ 

IS 20 

price w 


the study hour a great deal mow enjoy sd e. 

No. 33. Popular Home Album for the 

mm J iC. 

i,™ rnilng piece of music, but each o» » 

s ‘odle s important feature in piano-playing. These 

aie carefmV edited and fingered. 


20 ' 

20 ' 


No. 34. Double Note Velocity for the 

Pianoforte. By James H. Rogers. 

C James II. Rogers, one of J 4 fifi 

_Introductory ' lie best contemporary Atner- *P I 

r.j, lean composers. Is especially X :— 

„ happy in Ills pianoforte R^» 

Postpaid. Studies. They are always 

musical and very much to 
the point. “Doable Note Velocity’’ 1s one of his best, and 
at the same time one of the most useful books. Double 
Note passages play a very Important part In modern technic. 
Any third grade student may take up this book to advantage. 

No. 35. Concentrated Technic for the 

Pianoforte. By Alois F. Lejeal. 

C A technical work for more e 4 A A 
l n ir.A.,ctory advanced students, to be V | 

used in dally practice, to X - 

r,c *' foster and conserve flexlbll- R-f. 

»• lty of the fingers and wrist. pr«« 

Insuring perfect evenness of 
touch and smooth, pearl-llke scale playing. All departments 
of technic are fully covered in condensed logical form. 

No. 36. Selected Classics—V i o 1 i n and 
Piano. By F. A. Franklin. 

C This volume brings all the ■> Ap 

Iniroduciarv great melodies from the lm- • 

mortal classics within the 
range of the average player. R«*. 

It contains new transcrip- !»•» 

tions and arrangements of 
many of the great master melodies taken from the works of 
Haydn. Ilandel, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Cbopln, 
Mendelssohn and others. Although the arrangements sre 
easy to play, they arc very effective and true to originals. 

No. 37. First and Second Grade Study 
Pieces for Pianoforte. By E. Parlow. 

. p This is an excellent work e 4 aa 

Introductory to supplement or to ac- w | UU 
■ "unpnnv an Instruction book X = 

or graded course. It offers R»*. 

pleasing, as well as in- prim 
structlve material for the 
ng pianist In the first two grades. The pieces are all 
' and original, short and characteristic; very tuneful and 
treating. Only the keys of C, F and O and tiudrVcIatlve 
lors are used. The volume Is carefully graded. 

No. 38. Choir Book For Women’s Voices. 

. p A collection of sacred aep 

a .o r «T, zs.t,rrzi 50— 

Cub Price, bwt ^ of the Mrt pypr VV |U,. 
PaApcid. Issued. There are twenty pries 

numbers In all. Tbe pieces 
are adapted for duct, trio or quartet work, or for chorus 
singing In two, Hir e or four parts. AH arc of intermediate 
difficulty and exceedingly effective. 

New Gradus Ad Parnaasum—for the Piano¬ 
forte. By Isidor Philipp. In 8 Books. 

[far Introductory , , 

price These selected plsnoforte 

39. Left-Hand Technic . . 25c studies, from the works of 
40- Right-Hend Technic . 25c tbe great classic and mod. 
41. Hands Together . . . . 25c ern I 
42. Arpeggio . 25c nccoN 

43. Double Notee . 20c All t - - - .... 

44. Octavee end Chorda .. 25c each separate department 

45. The Trill.25c technic are c lassified to- 

46. Various Difficulties . . 20c tether In a separate volume. 
— I eifht volumes, one A student completing any 


20 ' 


_ -, ; assembled 

cording to a unique plnn: 
studies bearing upon 

fof $1.50 . 


il.ll.etl t 

these will 
that particular 
rlpett and heat \< 


1913 New Issues Added to Presser Collection 

ductory Prices to acquaint all with the latest 
t of thc«c celebrated works, One a 

. The New School of 


d be found In other collections. 

Low Final Intn 
and best cditioi 

at these prices. Introductory 

Oft* »*f Cub Prir., 

No. Prir* Portpoid 

47 E -”". so $.25 

41$ trllos for tbe Planofor*- 

40 berens, h. Op. r 

49 Velocity. 

CA CONCONE. J. Op. 31. IS Etudeode Style 
<R> for the Pianoforte. . . 

Cl CZERNY, C. Op. 553. Six Octave 

•>1 Studies.. 

CO CZERNY. C. Op. 718. 24 Studies for 

•>£ the Left Hand . . ■ - - 

CZERNY, C. Op. 823. The Little 

C4 DIABELLLA. * Op.* 151,* I6 r‘. Sonatinas 

w** for the Pianoforte. 

CC DUSSEK, J. L. Op. 20. Sonatinas for 
33 the Pianoforte ...... 

Jg HAYDN, J. Sonatas. Vol. I. Noa. 1 to 

CfJ HAYDN, J. Sonatas. Vol. II, Noa. 11 to 

C8 KOHLER, L. Op. 2*18. Chil'dran’o Exor- 

30 ciw> and Melodies. 

tjg LICHNER, H. Op. 4,49, 66. 9Sonatinae 

0Q MARCHESI,* S. Op. IS. Twenty Vo- 

C1 MOSZKOWSKI,’ M.‘ 0*p. 12. 'Spanish 

cl Dances (two hands). 

RO MOZART, W. A. Sonata, for the Piano¬ 
'll forte. Vol. I. 

fiO SCHUMANN, R. Op. 21. Novalattas for 

64 Sonatina Album Abridged .... 
rr VOGT. J. Op. 145. 24 Octave Studies o< 

C3 Medium Difficulty for the Pianoforte 
66 W1ECK.F. Plano Studies ... 

























1 00 






















BOGERT = 1=““ = 






The World of Music 




COMBS Srs5F«Sfe 

CRANE ^3=^—-. 












burrowes rss~r,... 

NEW YORK wSass- 


NEW YORK .tHaggr 

FLETCHER “T, sa'iSfL. 










* szr&.'Gg' . 

“ sltH- 

BARTELSfi&^snssw VIRGIL ■*»‘ifcnttggru 



•.VonENDE ‘‘SSSaisss&i''' 





MADE IN 12, 14, 16 LINE AND VOCAL, SIZE 14x22. 




: : : a 

S£SSSS";KkteruSa k - " ,l " tm “ "■ m '°* A 
IBSSwsza-sasffltausrtttt—- - - - 

SStEaSL’KSa «-.*»: : : . S """"‘:'"S:SIS 

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Ti lp ^® n,i ” ued l/om page 618.) asking them to do you the favor of hand- right things in a newspaper advertisement 

redurt-A „ UC i"° n '? c ° st . is due to the ing the circulars to friends who might without being classed with the charlatans, 

instead^f l fourT u^° ne page be interested in studying with you. This You may go just so far and no further, 

^ composition T^ WW “T"* ° f 2 /° drCularS ' Pkk ° Ut fifty and in cases you are not able to go By line upon line, repeated sermons 

. composition. The Whistler master- good names from the others on your list far en ouch You certainly do not want on the same text miniU ,. rn ° nett « 

T d S tZ d - th v m r -h Ut - SaV !i fifty , ci . rculars to secure the patronage of all those to Quired to remember that the^scales P' 

maximum prices. That is. they are “top to the^usfc'shop in"your Town andTn '" h ™ ^ ^ appeah ’ , How , can . yo “ Stones . of theref^ 

Siwlt th reader t S,,OU,d S et g °° d ad i° ining This" makes your item £?.?£? ,“ d _ ^*"*1 SftTg:* 

printing at these rates anywhere. It for postage stamps less than two dollars 
should be remembered that the pub- and you will have secured an effective 

well and send each at least ten circulars word must count. It is difficult to say the RAYS FROM THE STUDIO LAM 

asking them to do you the favor of hand- right things in a newspaper advertisement - 

by c. w. fullwood. 

One of the best ways is to advertise an all the major and minor forms. 
“Invitation Recital” and in connection 

t the circulars out broad- 


may be obtained at your studio. Such an fore" the"'l^^“L» ordeTtoriJ^SJ' 
advertisement might be in the following pen dence of finger action Then LfP 
ma " n " r staccato gives a facility to the’ ftg 

joints that is indispensable in smooth and 
rapid playing. 

Ushers of The Etude do no printing of distribution-a far better distribution than with , this state that cards for the recital Chopin taught the staccato 
any kind whatsoever. jf y OU h ac j ... - mov h* rvhto»«AH *t** cni/iin q^u *.« <• .* 

The teacher should not fail to use cast, 
some design or some appropriate pict¬ 
ure to attract attention. A slight addi- vr„. „ f . ... . 

tional expenditure in this direction may T ^ ™ I 

mean the difference between a “waste^ 1 °"' IS read - 

paper-basket” circular and one that will f.Tf P However ’. ,t ,s 

bring a real return. If you do not care *1 * ™‘ h 3 wh ° have "° ex P enence 
for a design and prefer a picture as m a ‘T/ «!*« too immediate 

many do. you could have your circular r ^ tUrns ' Advertising is nothing more 
appear in the following fashion The M ae ?“ alnt,ng y ? ur pr °s pect ^ f^or- 
picture is James MacNiel Whistler’s ab f with your busmess offerings that he 
extremely artistic and popular Mrs commence h:is p?» 

Hadden and her Daughter often called P ° SSlb,e - Sometlmes 
The first Lesson. Copies from which s 
half-tone engraving may be made can 
be purchased at slight cost. The cost 
of a half-tone engraving of the follow¬ 
ing size is about 75 cents. 


will commence his patronage as soon 
ossible. Sometimes he must receive two 
r three circulars before he is moved to 
1 act. Sometimes it takes two or three 
years, but if you persist you may get 
him. If you do nothing you are very 
' likely to get little. That is the basis of 
all advertising. If all the circulars you 
issue during the year get you but one pupil 
and that pupil continues for two 



to be given by her piano pupils on the 
evening of Wednesday, October 15th. 
You are cordially invited to investi¬ 
gate the results of Miss Pennell’s 
Methods. Cards may be obtained 
upon personal application to the 
Studio, 47 Wierfield Street. 

First and second grade music should be 
carefully edited, not only by the editor- 
publisher, but by the teacher to suit the 
individual needs of the pupil. Often the 
fingering should be revised to suit the 
hand of the pupil. 

The only royal road to success ir 
study is concentrated effort, even a 
must do hard work. 

The thumb is the clumsy member of the 
This simple plan also offers the teacher digital family ’ he ret > uires Patient train- 

_ ... , ... A simpic uian aiso oners t ie teacher . - 

If you send your five hundred circulars advertising ^The s-me orindnles^nnrr Wh ° ' S endeavoring to extend h er class ing ami watchfu! 
it by mail you will pay ten dollars in a .! I P ’^ ? Pply . t0 an opportunity to send cards for the event watch out he will g 

Er r a T w?fl ” 

reading and running. With the view of nnnn it here 

an opportunity to send cards for the event watch out be wi ” get lazy and drop below 
prospective pupils she may have al- the ke y board - 

[Editor s Note. The publishers of The No wonder pupils are confused about 
Etude can not undertake to do any print- the trill, when ancient and modern musi- 
mg of any kind whatsoever for their cal doctors differ on the subject. 

A . - . Patrons. Electrotypes of the border designs when the mass of theories and arguments 

-_**»*¥= «, be «4Ssr£rSrSSTJ*”"S MRS! 

keeping down your expense the following 
plan may be feasible. In your address 
book or card catalog you probably have 


aUe/stTw^rfive w^Zyou'kno^veS pkStaSfid ornament, exactly fitting 

l their advertising.] 

n the scheme of the composition. 

Dana’s Musical Institute 


PORTY-FIFTH year. All instru- 
^ . ments and voice taught. Lessons 
daily and private. Fine dormitories 
for pupils. Buildings for practice 
(new). Pure water, beautiful city and 
healthy. Not a death in forty-five 
years. Superior faculty. Every state 
and country in North America patro¬ 
nizes the school. Fine recital hall 
with an orchestral concert and soloists 
every Wednesday night. 


Chorus 10 A. M. 

Military Band 1 P. M. 

Orchestra 5 P. M. in Dana Hall 


Send for 64-page catalogue blue book and historical sketch to JVM. H. DANA , R.A.M., President 

Fall Term Begins Monday, September 8, 1913 



The study of music largely rests on a 
voluntary basis. The likes and dislikes 
0 f pupils modify the material used by 
their teachers in a way that would seem 
incomprehensible to the average instruc¬ 
tors in the ordinary branches of educa- 
‘tion if these were allowed to influence 
his courses of . study. Fancy, for in¬ 
stance, the teacher of mathematics who 
would acquiesce in his students’ only par¬ 
tially acquiring the multiplication table 
because of its difficulty, or the teacher of 
literature excusing the members of his 
class from the knowledge of the great 
poems of Milton or the plays of Shake¬ 
speare on account of occasional obsolete 
language or obscurities of style. Yet 
their music master is often thought to 
impose unjustified duties upon them in 
his dgmand for a mastery of the major 
and minor scales, or a practical acquaint¬ 
ance with the works of the great classic 

A lesson may be drawn from the ex¬ 
perience of a teacher who found himself 
in a not uncommon situation: A young 
lady who had studied the piano with 
some success, so far, as technical ability 
was concerned, came to him for further 
instruction, but he soon discovered that 
her accomplishments were confined to 
her fingers; she had no musical concep¬ 
tion nor interpretation, she cared for 
nothing but salon music of the emptiest 
type and strongly opposed all effort he 
made to have her play music of a more 
serious nature. He thought over the 
conditions of the case, and finally said to 
her: “Let us make this arrangement. I 
will let you choose one piece—whatever 

the etude 

you will provided that you submit to my 
choice for the next.” This appealed to 
her sense of fair play, and so it was 
agreed that every composition taken for 
study should be chosen first by one and 
then by the other. She selected one of 
her frothy favorites, and he followed it 
by giving her one of Mendelssohn’s 
Songs Without Words. When she had 
finished this she realized its superiority 
of style so thoroughly that she chose of 
her own accord to take another song 
withput words until she had studied a 
number of the best of them. Then by 
degrees she was made acquainted with 
some of the most attractive compositions 
of Schubert, Schumann and of the ear¬ 
lier classical masters. Never once did 
she use her liberty of choice to select 
anything of less merit than these. Her 
enthusiasm grew as her knowledge in¬ 
creased. Nor was the influence confined 
to her alone; it extended to the other 
members of the family, who listened to 
her practicing with a pleasure they had 
never before experienced; her father 
often used to wait until a late hour in 
the evening for her return home, so that 
he might hear a favorite sonata before 
going to bed. This goes to prove what 
Theodore Thomas once said, that popu¬ 
lar music was only a term for familiar 
music; that if Beethoven’s symphonies 
were heard as often as Strauss’ waltzes 
they would be just as popular. In fact, 
when she was introduced to Beethoven’s 
sonatas she could hardly be induced to 
study anything else, but took one after 
another until her teacher felt obliged tj 
interpose for the sake of balance. 

Mendelssohn’s Songs Without Words. 
Schubert’s Impromptus can hardly fail 
in attracting pupils who are restive at the 
thought of playing “classical” composers 
—but even Bach can be introduced l-y a 
little thought on the part of the judicious 

teacher. There are a number of charm¬ 
ing dance forms—gavottes, minuets, etc, 
and some of these have been transcribed 
for the piano from his compositions for 
string instruments in grateful and idio¬ 
matic form, so that there need be no diffi¬ 
culty in finding material in his music 
which shall interest and delight even 
youthful players who think Bach is only 
another spelling of the word fugue. We 
all know what happens to a dog if he is 
given a bad name, and it often seems as 
if the term classical has the same effect 
on the minds of the young and inexperi¬ 
enced, judging from the dread that many 
of them seem to have of names that pop¬ 
ularly belong to that category. 



Thebe are three general tempos em¬ 
ployed in practicing—Slow, Medium and 
Rapid. One of the best reasons for prac¬ 
ticing slowly a great part of the time is 
that only thus can we gain that repose at 
the piano which is necessary even for 
playing at high speed. If the player is 
inclined to be nervous it will show in his 
inability to “slow up.” The only way he 
can cure himself of nerves is to cultivate 
in himself a repose of spirit, which 
“takes all the lime there is.” holds every 
note to its full length, and issues at the 
finger-tips in rich, full, rounded melody. 
The right repose suggests fire, strength 
and power behind. 

A secret of good technique is that of 
having your finger ready over the key 
you want. This can be gained by doing 
it slowly first. Think ahead how far 
your present hand position will carry you. 
Thus, in playing a scale, as soon as your 
thumb has struck the first key slip it un¬ 

der the other fingers ready to strike the 
fourth. The other fingers must be in 
their proper, curved position, or the 
thumb will not have right of way. Keep 
a perfectly steady (but loose) wrist while 
doing this. If it is necessary to move, 
move the whole arm. 

Practice this inversely, that is, turning 
hand over thumb, with one hand on the 
back of the other to be sure the wrist 
does not move. 

A child will often try to pass one fin¬ 
ger over another instead of thumb under, 
not realizing that the position and shape 
of the thumb is an ideal factor of the 
hand, especially created for “scales.” Wc 
must give particular attention to the 
thumb. The edge of it must lie trained 
to give as soft a tone as the balls of the 
fingers. We must strengthen it by ex¬ 
tending it many times—with the rest of 
the hand quiet—and noticing the "feel” 
of strong contraction in the muscle joints. 

Some students have at first a grea* dis¬ 
taste for practicing scales, but this should 
be overcome. The scale, the chord and 
the arpeggio arc all the composer has for 
material when he sits down to work. We 
should play the scales lovingly, slowly— 
bringing out their tones with a singing 
tenderness, as though playing part of 'a 

It is said the American student has a 
way of bending his wrist inward. This 
forms on the outer edges of the hands 
what the German teachers call the 
"Amcricanische Eckc.” To avoid this, 
keep the wrist well out Practice flexing 
the wrist often while playing without 
taking the hand from the keys. Tiiis 
rests the hand. Notice at any recital 
how often the pianist flexes his wrist. 
The more the muscles arc contracted the 
sooner they tire. He has gained his 
speed through slow practice, and now is 
jealous of every extra motion. 

HANS van den BURG 

The foremost of the modem 
Dutch composers and pianists 


Eminent instructor of violin 
virtuosi and teachers 

"■HIS pre-eminent institution, representing the acme of 
■ musical education in America, possesses every element 
ir developing the musical future of artists and teachers. 


Distinguished authority on 
voice culture. French diction 
and interpretation 

Distinguished American 
organist and compoaer 


Leading German tenor and 
singing teacher 


Famous Berlin pianiste and 
ensemble player and teacher 


The famous Bel Canto auth¬ 
ority and American exponent 
of the R o s i n a Laborde 

For eight years pupil and 
eacher under Leschetizky in 


Dean of American Pianoforte 

Every Facility for Musical Study 

A Supervised dormitories. «l A separately conducted Con¬ 
cert Bureau, assuring appearances in concerts throughout 
the country for artist pupils <1 Lectures on culture, 
subjects; concerts, recitals. q Free classes m Musical 
History, Harmony, etc. « All in an environment of un¬ 
usual refinement and culture. The personal interest of 
?he faculty of great artists in the student body nurtures 
the highest and loftiest musical ideals. 

Season Opens September 15th 

Fo r Catalogue and Information Addrese Department “A" 

Che von Gtnde School of OQusic 

44 West 85th Street, New York ■ 


“flew, mention THE ETUBS .d<lr.e.tng o 


Writer and lecturer cm ped¬ 
agogy of municand aucceaaful 
pianoforte inatructor 

The eminent Polish pianist 
and composer 


Teacher and coach of Caruao. 
Bonci.Slezak.Gad ski. Farrar. 
Homer. Griswold. Destinn. 
and other* 


Solo violinist and Concert- 
master of the Boston Sym¬ 
phony Orchestra 

Please mention THE ETUDE when addressing onr advertisers. 



Eastern Schools 

|New England 



Boston, Mass. 


Year opens 
Sept. 18th, 1913 

The Largest and Best Equipped School of Music 

in Ihe Music Center of A 

ie Resid 

:c Build 

.. Its' 

Complete Curriculum. Courses in every br 
Owing to the practical training of students in c 
The free privileges of lectures, concerts an: 
before audiences, and the daily associatio: 
A Complete Orchestra offers advanced pupil 
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Dramatic Department. Practical training ir 


The New Haven School of Music 

Voice. Violin, Piano and Musical Theory and His¬ 
tory taught by Artists and Successful Teachers 
trained by MASTERS, "thorough Courses of Study. 
Scholarships^Certificates. Diplomas. Prepares both 

63 Dwight Street, New Haven, Conn. 



Tho oldest , practical and most scientific method c 
before the musical world. Teaches PIANO from th 


eachcrs all over the world are taking this course and are making a great success of it because it is 
>> .tern guaranteeing results. It rite for particulars. 116 Edna Ave., Bridgeport, Cor 


MR. THEODORE A. SCHROEDER will resnme lessons on September 1st, 1913, in 


Pupils.thoroughly prepared for successful careers in Concert and Opera. Sendfor Prospectus. 

326 Huntington Chambers. Boston, Mass. Phone: Back Bay 4076VV. 

Questions and Answers 

Helpful Inquiries Answered by a Famous Authority 

Conducted by LOUIS C. ELSON 

Professor of Theory at the New England Conservatory 

Communications to this department are welcomed. No charge Is made 
mation not likely to be cf interest to all of the readers of THE ETUDE ca 
In the department. Address all Inquiries, ETUDE QUESTION AND ANSWER DEPABTun™ 
1712 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa„ and not to Mr. Elson personally MENT > 

its wake. Many a p 

' Is Ms pupils that the s,™ 
lands for "Common Time 

The Faelten Course 

embraces^everv detail of modern 

theory, presents an absolutely cor¬ 
rect method of procedure and 
assures to all its students the high¬ 
est degree of Individual Efficiency. 

Q. I have read many references to Bee- another error j 
thoren'n -three periods,” and also t at trained teacher 

1 erdi also had three periods of composition. C is a “C" am_ 

Can jjou l/ ire me an idea of what then weret A moments thought would shoTtheaS 
A. Beethoven's first period was when he {t* v this. Tor the mark is used in German*' 
followed the precise style of llaydu. Ills J ranee. Itussia, and dozens of other cm2’ 
first symphony, his sonatas Up. 2, and Ms tries, where it could by no possibility beX 
string quartet, Op. 18, are examples of this. Initial tetter of * Common Time.” As a mnt 
His second period was when he had ex- of fact it comes from an old monasti- 

tended form and made it freer. His fifth ldea of nine centuries ago. The old relX* 
or seventh symphony, or his Sonata A dims- <‘°i»Posers held that music was purest and 
(this name was not given by him, best when it pulsated in threes, since it then 
—are of this type. His third represented the Trinity. They signed t4 

i—- when he began to discard all , a circle, and called the triple rhythm 

formalism and attempt freer shapvs, as in 'I erfeetum.” But, of course, they could nor 
his ninth symphony, his string qua ■-•*■ ‘ ’ fftrro oil mnoi- 

C-sharp minor, and liis last five pkui 

by the v 

Verdi's first period i 

ment, as in Ernu>.* 0 ^w«av. , 

where he added dramatic effect to 
ody and lmrmon!es, as in II Tro: 
in Iliyoletto. His third period wa 
made dramatic effect and unitv »»i« 

we in inpie rayiams. ana 

10 son- therefore they sometimes allowed an even 
rhythm a_is they signed with a han-circle 
when he wrote ® nd railed Imperfectum, and from this 
•rude accom pa ni- naif-circle comes the sign which some would 

. 1 •• • • have us believe is a letter “C” and stands 

for “Common Time.” 

chief o 

Q. -What erectly is the difference between 
an Oratorio and a Cantata t —C. S. 

-dTAkirS (YfeI(o"and in FaMaff. French 

his music, while extremely fascinating, seen/ 
little below the high level set bn the mat 
mposers for the piano. Do his “En Train,” 
- uratorio Is a larger work aud is , n “ Cournnt” and similar pieces entitle him 

sacred. The Cautata is generally *° first ra " & f —U. R. 

-uid may sometimes I e secular. Let A. No. Thev do not. Godard was a 
examine the actual meaning of the two charming melodist and had a fine sense of 
itorio took its origin from the the pleturesque in music. His works in the 

iV" 7 ‘“"''V;’ ? la .Vf which .St. l’hillp Ncrl smaller forms are always graceful and at 

d o t. 1 } 6 oratory of Ills church, tractive. I?ut in the larger forms be fall* 
santa .Man,i ValliceUa, in Rome. ••Cantata * short of absolute greatness. He has com- 
*I aI i ie . from ,, “Cantare,” ‘‘to siug,” posed two violin concertos and some chamber 
| 1 “"J vas at flrs t applied to almost any slug- music. His largest work Is a dramatic 
e * l ' xe< ' ute ' 1 by one person. Cantatas symphony. He exhibits skill In orchestra- 
ina v th!L U VXa !U f elaborate, until tion in this, hut is too fond of heavy "Tutti' 

ino! W“ a .? f soI ° Cantata was merged effects. lie is not to he ranked as high as 
•hnrch Poiri or "Concert Aria." The Kaff, but like that composer, he compose! 

“ Cantata beeam e a still larger work too much and too rapidly for his own Him. 
The f T.‘;' al sol pists and chorus. Nevertheless a good talent is by no mean* 

Present use of the word "Cantata," how- to be despised, and if we cannot allow God- 
, HS indicated above, either a shorter ard to rank among the great masters, we fan 
“J® ambitious sacred work than an still heartily enjoy almost everything that 
nov tnteAa 0 ^,\ f T ular .work on "rat- rio lines, he has written, 
not intended to be acted. The Oratorio is of 

•&*?* * — * - 

♦imV e ,,0 r ,le ; n >mnd that for a long 

S-j , the earl / days (about 1000), the 

is' *11 "return 8 to^ tTiis"in "our* own"*t"me, "when 
an attempt is being made to present Mendels¬ 
sohn s Elijah as a sacred opera. 

It’aa the so-called “Portoyallo” the 
composer of Portugalt 
Thnt eminent authority 

A. Almost all the composers after Wag¬ 
ner. But the term Is most properly appliw 
to the extreme radicals who came in wli” 
Richard Strauss. Mahler, Weingartner, Fis- 
••hoff. etc., are of this school, and Rever I s a 
prominent member of it. “ 
ing onward towards colos _ 

in the number of performers ri 

lorn, anu ■- 
It has been pudi; 

matters and'statistics, 
recently given me some additional 
turn regarding this too little ku< 
poser. He says that lie - - 

- ,0 large in the number of performers reguim. 
nnd very long in U’e time required for 
r>- ]' >V, n operatic formnnee. These ultra-moderns also strain 
, Y,fn r -nn S f or " n ; ls,,a > progressions and try reVf “ 

o go beyond' each other in b 

-is. x.iBBiuoui 

ailed "Rortuga 1 ''da^ Fonesca,”'but T’aTva^ ecnuifv^Ji’!* niicmlcs inusl: admU 
rfa^ nf'^glfre^^devel^pincntf^^itu^the^rcal 

Q- What institutions of learn In,, in Eu- * ulr,ition to the neo-German ranks is 
ope are considered tht, _. 

music f —E. f 

they pertain to 

Paris Conservatoire is in umnv re- 
le most important. I s national 
• great prizes whieh it awards, the 
composers connected with its hi.s- 
directors, teachers and punils its 

ry a , nd all entitle it to the .- _ 

innk. The Leipsic Conservatory thing ugly 
i ir i„ --- ^ oth -,j 1 . 

they are hlss ^ n ™lff 
■ audiences will . ™'L,. 
•Imenberg jloo* D ' 

addition to the r 
berg, whose worl 
tiant ugliness thj 
London where 

almost anything. Schoenberg does nn> (11 . 
pie to employ three different keys » ^ 

same time, and the last thing m 
that he thinks of is pleasing hk "^. trin , 
It is nil very far removed from the " M 
whieh Beethoven once expressed w ^ 
said that music even when deplcbne |!||t 
..... thing ugly must itself remain a ion- 

the It would he wrong to accuse German' » r 

ih rt«V^ the "fame "of of these ^ 

tMi Jnni J . he Munich Akademie holds man school has its imitators In other 

1 e Mmn "»? d , 18 ospeiially to be noted as tries. Boss! and Busoni represent »aff 
Ulp Alma Mater of inanv Vmorbiin onm. radical »»annor« • Holbrooke. 

i P n >K roniitp ln« nerl JrK ,T ?, (hs< ‘ hu,e sJ *>»ds high and otbers are imitating it in 

.T T,le BuJIdhall School, and Music, Iieavenlv Maid, is becoming A* 

London exert mv a "? tl,p Roval College In old, wrinkled and hideous. 

J*n f, ° n ^ ervat0rv dos, ' rves mention. Q. Will you please tell me b f nc 

ierviteH O'^n, ]a rge city has a good Con- “Kao Time” oriijinated. Who fir*t 
p - at oHo. The Conservatorium in Vienna wordf— Stcdent. tl4 tr 

Lke •'• I R ave thought this W* & 

of the smaller schools, but the above are the i OII l« { rol . n ragged time -tM . it h_ 
loml first to d, mind U,She(1 lnstitutions whlch — P Sonth the n^ 

Q. May any duple (2. 2. 2) oi 
time (i. .}, i)be called common ti 
A - ' 1 ’ ,,p rather old-fashioned ter 
HI 1 a piirase wh^h*” "e! 

4T h rlmlm?'i 1 advisc against its 
other rhythm. This antiquated"" 

.. Down South the bea . 

sometimes have social gatherings am" bro tbcr. 
, ,, selves to help some poverty stricken 

quadruple whl ,. h tIley ,. nlI „ -rag-rent • ^ 

gatherings they have dancing ‘•rae-tio’' 
i of "Com It is quite possible that the worn (iV |L 
dc tna • k" f l comes from these "rag-rents. .•',”'pnin'^■ 
er use in wav. rag-time is not so black n , ar rie>P >, ^ n ! 
use. since it is simply an excessive use or i, nP . t 
than any Beethoven himself has written uh’ 

m brought you may see by looking at the M 


the etude 

nf the Andante movement of his sonata, 

“no 14 No 2. But after all. in the matter - ,.- 

of syncopation. Schumann lias gone about the timefor^he tLbVm’ rom . what bcal 
as far as ® '« safe to go. aUo tyhethnmlsecX* 

Q. Wilt von kindly inform m 
bass clef is turned tins won ((. 
song books and reversed, tl ' 
instrumental musicf—h. /•'. 

A. There it 
in which tli 
optional. Tli 

_ r this. The wa.v 

> clef is turned Is entirely 
» two dots are the important 
sign. Between the two dots 
This was the earliest clef the 

„„„ .—-c, and it was used because second 

small P is a note in the middle of the 
average male voice, and male voices wen 
the only ones used In the early Catholic 
church mush-. The F clef was made in 
many different shapes, and it was at first 

" ” nH |f these, "where- on / e f° 

Eastern and Southern Schools 

f notating an 

This is merely „ ,„„ uc OI UO ianng 
rpeggioed effect, strike the grace-note 
he hear e a C h time aud do not strike the 
but sustain the note. Also sus¬ 
tain the lower note, not striking it after the 

Q. Kindly r 

' leading « 

horizontal I 

S °l 

ever chev were placed, was small ’ F. At A. A standard book on Negro composers 
present the fourth line of the staff is always would be almost as short as the famous 
between them, but even a couple of centuries chapter on Snakes in Ireland, which ran 
--'in . . 1 no ^akes in Ireland.” I know 

0 they were often found on each side of 
tne third line, which then became F. 
above stated, the F clef was the earliest 
all the musical clefs, and I have music 
mv library, which is at least 800 years o 
which uses this clef. 

There _. 
of only 
achieved i 

Taylor. He was the pioneer of I 
this field. His works ' 
that is refreshing and 

from the straining school that I have de- 
senbed in the preceding answer. I met 
Coleridge Taylor and have chatted with him 
"" , n ! a “y musical topics, and I found him 

i originality 

Q. When suspensions arc to be used, 
then only alloieed in certain places or 
then permissible in all instances f- S. F. 

A. The question is rather vague, nut .LiiCiiT' '"T V—■"'-•■i < '»»™ "«■ a 

suspensions can occur at any place. Even well-balanced leader in the modern field, ut- 

long grace notes (appoggiaturel are prac- teriy unspoiled by his successes and by the 

tlcally suspensions. L'snaily suspensions oc- { iKt that he was the first great composer of 

cur on a natural accent. his race since history began. It Is quite 

likely that since one such Bower has grown 

Q. What does "AuId Lang Syne” meant — from the African soil, other Negro com- 

Bno. Elmer W. posers of eminence will soon arise. 

A. Literally it means the old times, or T ? e fact that the Negro race is eminently 
long ago. ("Long since.") The American musical in its folk-songs Is not. however, any 
song of "Long, Long Ago” has about the proof of this, for Scotland has the finest 
same meaning. The melody is a very old folk-songs of the world, yet has prodund n« 
Scottish one. and some of the "words are great master In music as vet, no one to 
much older than people imagine. It came work this golden material Into great art 
™ tti8h T' 0,1 - v cal, « 1 "'fved a forms, as Chopin did with the dances of 
lad at Martinmas. The second mid third Poland, Liszt with the melodies of Hnmnnr 

;. ' ,oem are >>y Iluras - They or Gr ^ g with tbose 0 

S folio) 

We twa hae paddled in the Burn 
Frae morning sun till dine: 

seas between us braid hae roared 
Sin Anld f^ang Syne.” 

The other verses are ver 
the melody. Notice that L 
the ancient pentatonic scale, 

Q. Can you tell me why a violinist yen- 
• rally plays a shade flat when excited. The 

... same condition seems to affect, a singer in 

i Laiig'Syne ' “ a similar manner. Why do they not siny 

“ y sharp r—W. F. P. 

A. King Charles IT once asked a meeting 
of scientists why, if a live gold fish wer- 
placed in a globe of water, the globe would 
weigh the same as before. After many theo¬ 
ries had been given one wise scientist pro¬ 
posed to weigh the gold fish and the globt- 
of water. When this was done it was found 
that the globe was increased by exactly the 
weight of the gold fish. In the same manner 
I would wish first to test whether this Bat 
ting is actually the case. I have heard a 

. r (and very celebrated soprano sharp her trill 

’ Bonnie"Doon, many times when she was nervous. But in 
as) is the same the case of many singers, in producing high 
It points notes, the higher the note the more the 

une of thi physical strain, and therefore it Is quite pos- 

sMde that, in the hlnh register a nervous 
singer mav flat through lack of physical 
» the difference between a sinning force, or through not having that for-e well 
me mn talking tonet I of course realize under control. Perhaps a vlollnls 

to mJzZfJi ce ’ fl" (l It difficult to explain in the hlnh position* may have 

% ro ice P ' l f'- WC rccomi ~v a person’s speak- difficulty in reaching along the finger-lx 


Combs Broad St. Conservatory of Music 


lined and you are assigned t< 




music center. DORMITORIES af¬ 
HAPPY HOME while studying 



' built upon 
cale of five 

irf.i."" <..'■■'■•'„• L ™ out own diatonic scale 
JV i tllp foa, "th nnd seventh notes omitted. 
I 1 vpp >’ probable that such music was 
dnselv akin to that of ancient Greece. 

. Hie scale which is — ’ • ■• • 

m Ye Banks and B 
and many other Scott 

Gilbert Reynolds Combs 



Combs Broad St. Conservatory of Music 


i similar 

inn , n c recognize a per 

tllkilo / alw "«« despite the infix . 

'f.os produced from rule and 
. .liny tone Ijjnijn would they not bo 

be considered equal?—if. 

A. Sometimes the conr 

wen a intagih,. 

iiioth’*! ill i *' OT ?: for -example, of Rdwii 
althn h n 8 i, dp S amation of Hamlet's Soliloquy 
h that was spoken. A mu 


alral voice will | lve Tonpa 1n Kn „., KInir 

more ileriHfm^ , tl,a vo, 'al chords are brought 
Pitch i„ a ln to play and a more definite 
Whers . Nevertheless there are 

^finite pitches!™ Prohahlj aP thcre"was 1< mo 1 rc 
Umra ,e ,h„'? °L h't'b in speaking in ancient 
ri '- p to. when l e':''“ ^ ■ ,,0 ' v ' I? " r example, 
near him ea ,’ p -ave his orations, had a slave 
ever h sr ’ l,ndpd a pilch-pipe when- 

fl ectlon. S cr stra .ved from the proper in- 

Important 1 Hmn nf | Plto1 ’ in Toi< ’ e ls far morc 

^Peaking in '"a L* t ? en ? raI1 v reeogniz.d. In 
fn " n d tliat^iGo, ^ aI L fo, ‘ sample, I have 
Power, ami Y i ,nore importance than 

hiy roZILL 'nsHnetivelv alter the pitch cf 
"tators *wonIfl V0 * C ^ 1 ln halls. If 

w "uld often « understand this fact they 
“aty exertion 8aV<? ‘betuselves much unncces- 

Q. Time does one keep the 1 
piece, not by metronome, but by 

between the " piece mnrM u ' dnnl ' ( # 11 

itanee. how would you tell the eo 
it which to play it by watch f- 

Atlanta Conservatory of Music 

Mortimer Wibon, General Director 

Peachtrc* and Broad .Streeta, 

P this method In the «■ 

Hahn Music School 

Cluu. D. Hahn, Director 
The School for your Daughter 

Our catalogue tells why 
3915-s Rou Avenue, Dali.., Tex. 

Mr. and Mrs. Crosby Adams 

Special Mid-winter Class 

(date announced later ( 
lor Tficbm oi Piano i: tt-e uud>. diacu—ic r. 

Crosby Adams, Montresl, North Carolina 

Studies, oi 

of Czernv’s Studies. 

I too fast. Tills came 
r mental Hines) 

- Hussell Sanborn 


f°J Infor, 

unttngton Chambers, Boston 
)o Organ-Largo Four Manual 

Mtion,relative to Recitals. Instruction 
TRUSSEI.L. Secretary 

act that the mental mliess mu -e- ■ 

,g upon hint made him this 

''feet lie"overscitrre!-Lsl U.' Raff alw marked 
cme of his.Pivvra ^^.^n.wned ^ 
^liVn^wi, metrimoMie^ M he rave Z 

er that the metronome 
,. n d that any, ca 

'S : K;«S ; srSj 

vdn Beethoven and Czerny were the 
use the metronome. 



~~ HAROL D RANDOLPH, Director 

brtalle, it , 0 offer ejcccDlional ^ntnsrx fo, musical culture in all paJe^rHJnoach^ 


School of Music 

- OF 

Shenandoah Collegiate Institute 

Offers a broad variety of musical courses, including Piano¬ 
forte, Violin, and other stringed instruments. Band and 
Orchestra, with weekly concerts, 

Pipe Organ, Piano Tuning, Voice 
Culture, Elocution and Physical 

September 17llt. Students Iron 

Address: Box 110 

B when addressing our sdysrUsors. 



New York Schools 





The Eminent 



recognized as one of the few 
who possess the ability to 
thoroughly place the voice, 
cultivate it, and teach dic¬ 
tion, style and interpretation 
of French songs and opera, 
resumes her teaching Sep¬ 
tember 15th at 







For Free Catalog Address 

The von Ende School of Music 

The von Ende School of Music 

44 West 85th Street, NEW YORK 

Box 16-44 West 85th Street, NEW YORK 



The Eminent Polish 



rfi abroad ea 




for the third season at 

The von Ende School of Music 
New Building, 44 West 85th St. 

For free catalog address 

Herwegh von Ende, Director 

The von Ende School of Music 

Box 33-44 West 85th Street, NEW YORK 


« 56-58 West 97th St., New York City 


exj Two connected buildings delightfully situated between Central Park and the Hudson River 

tught fro 

i the beginning 

New York’s Modern, Up-To-Date Music School With 

w wie n.x.ia.i «u,uC finish by a faculty composed of M # __ 

America’s most eminent teachers * Dormitories ^Proper Chaperonage 

Terms, including tuition, board, practising, etc., on application 

rx The American Institute of Applied Music 

Paul Savage Katharine L. Taylor 

h SEASON B. Huntington Wood™ 





Practice Clavier 

Far superior in its latest construction to any 
other instrument for teaching and practice. 


For catalogue and prospectus address : 

L, Medfion 4‘" C « B d84 , tt , sf;eet NEW YORK 

% -Ifi 


Progressive Teachers-Takemy 

Normal Correspondence Course 

In Modern Ideas of Touch, Technic, Pedal, Metronome, 
Hand Culture, and How to Teach Them 

Address, JOHN ORTH, Steiner! Hall, BOSTON 



The opportunities of the Institute are intended only for students of natural ability wtth aa earnest purpose to do serious 
work, and no other* will be accepted. 

For catalogue and full information address Secretary, 120 Claremont Avenue, New York. 

Institute of Musical Art 
of the City of New York 

120 Claremont Avenue 
FRANK DAMROSCH - - Director 




October 4th and 7th 


September 29th to October 9th 

Prospectus of Supervisors’ Course 

ailed on applies 



Far too many teachers make the erpjl 
mistake of giving too much at one lessT 
This is due rather to lack of judgJ; 
than zeal. All enthusiastic teacher?wi,! 
their pupils to succeed and can hard!, 
wait for the success to arrive. Thev tiw 
fall into the fatal error of forcing fc 
pupil, little realizing that the pupil’s capac- 
ity is just so great and that no amount 
of force can do it any good, and may fc 
it great harm. An electric wire of j 
certain size can only carry so aiucb 
current. Additional current results in a 
breakdown. This is often the case with 
the child, too much at one lesson may 
prove an obstruction in the child’s prog¬ 

The more variety a child has in music 
study the easier it becomes for the teacher 
to hold the interest. Too much variety 
in difficulty of the pieces may result in 
confusion. Do not give the pupil mote 
than he can comprehend. Enough is 
enough. Too much invariably discour¬ 
ages. See to it that the pupil thoroughly 
understands the principle you have been 
trying to impart before the end of the 
lesson. This is very important If he 
does not understand try again with a 
different Vocabulary. Perhaps your words 
have not been simple enough to make it 
absolutely clear to him. 



The student must needs suit the finger¬ 
ing to the possibilities any! structural for¬ 
mation of the hand. It is surprising, 
however, what can be done in the way 
of development. The writer once had a 
pupil with an abnormally short thumb; 
she could not span an octave. Ate a 
year’s training, however, she played oc¬ 
taves with ease. Perhaps there is some 
truth in the statement that “any finger¬ 
ing is good that will make good phras¬ 

That student makes the most progress 
who puts the information he gets at 
lessons to best advantage in his home 
study. Eternal vigilance is the pnee o 

Surely it is better that a child shouM 
hear only good music from the first 
hymns and folk songs with which ne 
already familiar will enable him to 
time and to develop an ear j 
much more readily than new and 
pieces. His ability to play familiar 
moreover, will give great satisfaction 
his parents. 

Granberry Piano School 



Roi>ki.kt CAUN'EGIK HALL J®^ 

Crane Normal Institute of Music 


Voice culture, sight reading, ear-training, harmony, form, music history, 5 cl10 '* 

methods, practice-teaching. Graduates hold important positions in colleges, cityano 




Kindergarten and Primary—Correspond¬ 
ence or Personal Instruction 

y Pupils—Satisfied Parents— Prosperous Teachers. Classes are doubled by use of this method 


Please mention THE ETUDE when addressing our advertisers. 

Learn Harmony and Compos'*' 

the etude 


New York Schools 


ALFRED H. JAY, Director 


Offers greater advantages than ever before for 
the study of Music in all its branches, Elocu¬ 
tion, Physical Culture and Languages, Etc. 

“ Conditions Upon Entrance ” the most liberal of any offered 
by similar institutions. Free Classes in Harmony, Theory, 
History, Ear Training, Sight Reading and Pedagogics. 


Fall Term Begins September 8, 1913 



jjunmng sysbeni study for beginners 

There is a reason why the Dunning System is the only one endorsed by the world-renowned 
masters of music. There is a reason why a teacher taking this course should have a Dunning class of 
seventy-two in six months Teachers are proving every davMhaHt pws, Musically. Artistically^ and 

That is the opinion of LescbelizkV* Scharwenka, Busoni. Carreno, DePachtnann, Gabrilowitsch, Dr. 
Masoa, Johanna Gadski and many others. For further information and booklets address 

MBS. CARRE LOUISE DUNNING, I 1 West 36th Street, New York City 
Normal training class for teachers Chicago, August 11th; New York, September 23d. 

Frank Croxton 


Has appeared with the 

Societies of America 

The Frank Croxton Quartette 

“A perfect vocal ensemble .”—Newark News 
“Best Quartette in America.” — Viet or Herbert 
“A joy to the musician .”—Max Bendix 
“No such vocal ensemble, it is believed, has ever been heard in this 
count rv .”—Indianapolis News 

L'r/s.isr *” T^’^agitssss xuss 

For Terms Address 

Box 209,“THE LAMBS,” iso w«t 44th st., New York, N.Y. 

cessar y w - 


42 WEST 76th ST., NEW YORK 

Manufacturers of 

The “Tek” . 

The Bergman Clavier 
The Bergman 2 and 4 Octave 
instruments for travelers 
The Bergman Technic Table 
(Raised Keys) 

The Be rgman Child s Pedal 


“TMW XJ RGIL METHOD” Books I and II • • * ’ t £ em 

™EPTAN° PEDALS,” How, When Were tou«e . • » 

CHOICE COMPOSITIONS, Grades 1, 2, 3, 4. S, for P,an y ., 

Five New Songs for Home and Concert Use, y 1 r Catalogues 
__L*beral Discount to Teacher, S md^orCatalogu__ 


^ iocuuni to i eacners ___ 

Fall Term Opens September 22nd, 1913 


' irgil Piano Conservatory a2 w. 76«b s», new york 


In his interesting little work entitled. 
Technical Study in the Art of Pianoforte 
Playing, Mr. C. A. Ehrenfechter tells us 
that “the production of powerful, not to 
say startling dramatic effects (many com¬ 
positions might be taken as written main¬ 
ly to serve such a purpose), requires a 
physical effort causing considerable 
straining of the muscles of the arm; as 
a relief, the latter, after the chord or sin¬ 
gle note has been executed, is lifted high, 
from ten even to twenty inches above the 
keyboard, allowing hereby the strained 
muscles to relax, regenerating their flexi¬ 
bility. Even pianists of the more sober 
and sedate class may make use of this 
expedient with much advantage, espe¬ 
cially in the performance of music of a 
brilliant character, also in playing other 
music making special demands on their 


“The effect of keeping the arm for a 
length of time in the same unaltered po¬ 
sition causes fatigue, and consequent in¬ 
voluntary stiffening of the muscles; if re¬ 
lieved at fitting opportunities in the 
above manner, the muscles may be kept 
in excellent working condition. Those 
who have been under the impression that 
the object of this high lifting of the arm 
is to come down on a chord from high 
above, may consider themselves to have 
been the victims of an optical delusion. 
The arm, raised to whatever height, must 
of course come d.jwn again, but however 
precipitate the descent may be, there is a 
sudden stop before the keys arc touched. 

“I might have mentioned that in order 
to have the muscles in proper condition 
and to ensure a safe attack, the raising 
of tile arm tr.ay in many cases be ol 
much service in commencing a perform¬ 
ance. It is necessary, however, to warn 
performers against indiscrimina.c and 
too literal indulgence in the expedient 
just spoken of; its employment in the 
playing of a simple hymn-tune, for in¬ 
stance, would be ludicrous, whilst its ten 
frequent use in ordinary performanc ■ 
might appear affected.” 


In his fascinating little brochure. The 
Artist at tin- Piano, Mr. George Wood- 
house, a well-known English authority, 
has indulged in some scathing criticisms 
of the “theorists,” aiming his shafts, as 
he says, not so much against any particu¬ 
lar theorist or school of theorists, as 
against the “theorist” that is inherent in 
us all. Far too much is said and writ¬ 
ten in an attempt to analyze every move¬ 
ment of the hand, arm and body in piano 
playing. In discussing this fact, Mr 
Woodhouse uses the following striking 

“A child loams to walk, not Iwcause n 
wants to walk, but because it insists on 
having things which are out of its reach, 
Imagine the result were it possible to 
tcadi a child the theoretic science of the 
art of walking. It would first be neces¬ 
sary to enter fully into the laws of grav¬ 
ity, and to explain what must inevitably 
happen should a false Step lie taken. 
Then an exposition < f the muscles and 
sinews of its legs and feet would lie pre¬ 
sented to the child, and a complete set of 
rules framed in obedience to the laws 
governing the numerous movements 
which are required for every step. 
Finally its attention would he drawn to 
the degrees of impetus required, and—— 

“But enough! The brains of a Darwin 
would not suffice to keep the child erect 

SrUutij&rljualof CCfjurrlj fflitsir 

A Training School for Organists, 
Choirmasters and Choristers 

0 Trinity Place, New York 

(— College of Fine Arts — 

Syracuse University 

. Faculty 

{"OFFERS Teaching Position*, Col- 
leges. Conservatories, Schools. 


' hort Courses 

\ For Teachers and 
Advanced Students 


Piano, Voice, Organ, Violin, Elocution, 
Public School Music, Normal Methods, 
Locke’s Primary Plan. etc. Certificates. 
Catalog. Teacher, educated in Europe. 

Marks’ Conservatory of Music 

E. F. MARKS, Director 

West 121st Street New York 

The National 
Conservatory of Music 
of America 

Jeannette £ Tliorber. Fo'idet tad Pth. 
PINCK. etc. 

Annual Entrance Examinatiors 
Singing, Sept. 24*h, Pleno, Organ, Violin, 
•Ceflor and all Orche.trel m.lrumenta. Sc r t 
2Sth, (Children) Plano and Violin, Sep*. 2’1h. 

Secretary only 1*8 W. 7*th St., New York City 

Music Education 

Private Classes and Normal Coursea 

NEW YORK and BOSTON. 1913-14 



I An.. New York 


Studio 12 (Dr. Mea. 

,). Steinway Hell New York 





Chicago Schools 

AMERICAN season 



KIMBALL HALL, Cor. Wabash Ave. and Jackson Blvd., CHICAGO, ILL 

Unsurpassed faculty of seventy. Courses of study modern and progressive. Superior 
Teachers’ Training School Supplies Teachers for Colleges. Students’ Orchestra. 
Lectures, Concerts, Recitals, Diplomas and Teachers’ Certificates 

in J. Hattsued 
rleniot Levy, Si 
>uise Robyn, Earl 


E. Drought. M; 


'pod. Allen | Organ- Wilhelm Middelschulte, Effie Murdock 

Kaehli _^ I_ m __ 

:rsen, George Colburn, 
dlo —Robert Ambrosius, Hans Hess. 

.of Theodore 

io Sciont 

I Blair,__ 

Van Dusei 

J.T. Read, Jennie Johns 
Zendt, C 

tries La 

mposition — Adolf Weidig, Arthui 

.mas Orchestr: 

ic School M< 

M. Donov; 

J sic -O. E. Rob 

of Eurhythmi 

Frances 1 

I Italian, Gei 




The Mary Wood Chase School 
of Musical Arts 





Northwestern University 

Evanston - Chicago 


A University Professional School, for the comprehensive study of 
practical and theoretical music, either as a profession or as an element 
of culture. Located upon the shore of Lake Michigan in Chicago’s 
most attractive suburb. 

A thorough Preparatory Department is maintained, 
weeks’ summer school. 

Environment and social advantages most excellent. 

Faculty of 32. Send for detailed descriptions of courses and book 
of Evanston views. 

P. C. LUTKIN, Dean, Evanston, Ill. 



C H O O 

W O O D 

few MUSIC 

..Manager S uite 711 Fine Art Bldg. 


Please mention THE ETUDE when addressing our advertisers. 



Western Schools 

Music and Drawing 


Thomas Normal 
Training' School 


Thoroughly equips young men and 
unusually short time. 

o teach these subjects in public schools i 

The.Thomas Normal Training School has been graduating teachers and nlnnino- fiiom _ A n 
jecu n and°ofIering *a thMougl^onfryea^roursS^ a'iscT'* ^ VOted “>ese special sub-' 

Domestic Art Physical Training 

Domestic Science Manual Training 

&»teolS l0Cated 8nd h “ 8 ■ 

THE SECRETARY 3029 West Grand Boulevard Detroit, Mich. 

Lachmund Conservatory of PianoPlayin? 



Stockhoff, Piano. Nordstrom Carter, Voice. y ’S3rd year. 


Annual Session. September 18. Gym., Expression 




The oldest, largest and best m 
the West. All Branches of i 
FREE Handiom 


isic school in Specially Low 

lusic taught. Beginn 

Catalogue on application lo 

N. W. Cor. Taylor s 




sent to EFFA ELLIS will 
give you the first 6 months’ 
work in keyboard harmony 
for children. This includes 
simple modulation. 

Effa Ellis Keyboard Harmony School 
and Training School for Teachers 

201-204-205-206 Boston 

Detroit Conservatory 
of Music" 

L. York, M.A., Preside 




Michigan Conservatory of Music 

Frederic L. Abel. Director Eminent Facility oi 50 



By M. C. EVANS Price, 50 Cent* 

This is by far the best primer ever issued. It is 
modern, thoroughly practical and comprehen¬ 
sive in all respects. The work is in the form of 
a catechism, the information being conveyed 
through the medium ofaseriesof questions and 


, Philadelphia, Pa. 


ded by CLARA BAUR 

Faculty of International Reputation 

AH Departments Open During the Summer 

Elocution—M U SIC—Languages 

Aleo Special Normal Coarse in 


Location and surroundings ideal for Summer study 
hor Catalogue and Summer Circular Address 

Ml cc oppTUA Dijm „. , , , , For Catalogue and Summer Circular Address 

MISS BERTHA BAUR, High land Avenue and Oak Street, Cincinnati, O. 

Please mention THE ETUDE when addressing our advertisers. 


PRICE 15 c 
*1-50 PER.YEAR 


Pupils’ Recitals 

I'cci I ' ■ • Have Found Useful 


The Pathos of Distance. By James i 
Huneker. Charles Scribner's Sons. I 
Bound in cloth. 393 pages. Price, $2.00. |bi 
The most voluminous collection of 

books in the English language written by '“Cri'can*"S,??“£?■* ds , - _ _ 

any one man is said to be the Waverley »“<> Jm : Dlekerv, Dickon* n<i«“k ke L ; Jll *l 
Novels of Sir Walter Scott. However, 

if Mr. Huneker continues to rain out new f nckl ® Po j ka <4 lids.i, Rosewig^jonv 1 ! 0 ^’ 1 
works upon us Sir Walter may have to Momief (4 hds!“, y, iWcherinP d n 1 ’ Lt* * 
look to his laurels. Mr. Huneker’s new nlX^XUn^d "euX,. 
book is a collection of essays, stones and hds.), Goerdeler; Last ~ 
criticisms called the 
because i 


is a collection of essays, stories and hds.)/ Goerdeler; Last Rosier C ^ ,op 
sms called the “Pathos of Dis- nr"am/ ;'puppeFs^aio D G ^^1 
(after a phrase from Nietzsche), }: Love Fay. Weyts; u iJ? I 
| se in the mind of the author they sXnT Mazurka^ GodSwl ; 
cover some of the most interesting re- Blllenin ; Messenger of Love (4 

flections made during his brilliant career. 

Mr. Huneker, like a tropical orchid, is Fu P i,s of Mrs. X. it. Retinoids. 
not to be analyzed and appraised, but Moskow“ki * Birthday Marfh' Ul'LlV 
rather to be admired and enjoyed Be- {&”• g&,“?' 

gin a page anywhere and you will be Schubert; William ,n - MP (n iX, 1 11 iif 
charmed by his style, whether he be with »i r .u“£. F m t> ijmm*f ? u Kngeimami: I 

George Moore, Daudet, Wagner, Yeats Donizetti i.cschotizkv :°pVaTint ft T. h8 ° l !i 
or Walter Pater. “Distance lends pathos, paKe^pjp? R&hbuS 
bathes in rosey enchantments the sim- 10ld I j Fr< i m ^i or 'vay (« hds.), Koellinr raH 
plest events of a mean past; is the hds). AlendHlsohn^'KitcM^^^H 
painter in a word, who with skillful con- ano and kitch en utensils), Kling. 
soling touches disguises all that was sor- Pupils of Sacks School. 
did in youth all that once mortified or ^^V^LlnVXTm^WttlSl 
disgusted, and bridges the inequality of (Vocal), Leoncavallo: Minuet (Op. 3 No 1) " 
man and rmn ” Sacks; Souveuance. Gibson: Danse Creok 

man and man. Chamtnade: lieiisario (2 pianos) DoS 

Loria : I Send My Heart Up to Thee (V 
Who's Who in Music . By H. Saxe Mrs. Beach; Concerto, C Minor. Heeth. 
Wyndham. Published by Isaac Pitman F,UPS '’ ln dos <;esa 
& Sons. Bound in cloth. 294 pages. ^iss Wheeler. 

At last an obvious opportunity has 

been grasped by a progressive English Lindens (4 hds.). Hiller; The Royaljfi 
firm, and a necessary book of contem- g^j. “figE 
porary musical biographies has been pub- Kern; Marche Triomphale (Piano and Organhj 
fished. The author, who is the secretary gffioir 

of the large Guildhall of Music of Lon- * nd Dance of the Klves, Dubois: Toccata* 
dnn Lac . . . - Caprice, Benson; Tarantelle, MacDowell: Mill 

don, has given a very great deal of earn- Clack, Josaffv; Orfa Polka, Gottsohalk; Ik- \ 
est effort to make the work as Complete zurka ’ D Ma I° r - Wacba * 
and useful as possible, but nevertheless Pupils of O. n. Rainville. — 

he. realized the necessity for requesting Mi “ 1 

the musical public to look upon the debut aphrase), Goldbeck ; Twinkling Star, Bobm; 1 
of the bnnlr with “o I*.—,,,* , « •*. Venitienne (Fourth Barcarolle), Godard; tom 

tne DOOk with a tolerant eye to its mance (left hand alone), Ll.hner; Spring fl 
many faults of omission and commis- (Voice and Violin), Well;. Lohengrin. ■ 

sion.” The public should first of all be promptu Polka, Tbome^FdurthHanrkL0* I 

ing tne uncomfortable task any enterprise Concert, MacDowell; Pasquinade (4 k*-®" 
of this kind must present. The book Gottschalk - 

contains a great deal of desirable infor- Pupils of Mrs. L. It. Ewen. I 

mation not otherwise obtainable. In a Lafe^e ietX 
new edition the author will doubtless see Par,ow i Etude de Concert (Bn Octaves). 
fil t. make a complete rearrangemeu, ot Si*5l!ffl5, l S. b fe;S#l 
? anj 

realty mstinguished Americans who have Pluno Solo—Standeben. Llchner; La j** 
tan omiued, and redueiug the ,p»e, Jl "“ i “ 

gpven to some others, who though de- 

crn V1 H 8 ’ f fe certa ‘ nly not entitled to ^“A^Scheh'erezade^Story, Relneeke: ig! I 
crowd out some of their better known Flight, Keinltold ; Valse Romantlque, *«“• I 

s:rr* 1 t saa 

nas to do solely with living musicians. h IiD °t’ Dennee; Whispering Wind. | 

4 J 6y great men reached and kept 

1 1 a .tta!nect hy sudden flight 

I! crJl^y whif e their companions slept 
Were toiling upwards in the night.